ⓘ Knowledge

Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy". The Enlightenment emerged out of a European intellectual and scholarly movement known as Renaissance humanism. Some consider the publication of Isaac Newtons Principia Mathematica 1687 as the first major (Mathematica in 1687 as the first major) enlightenment work. French historians traditionally date the Enlightenment from 1715 to 1789, from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV until the French Revolution. Most end it wi ...

Agnotology

Agnotology is the study of culturally induced ignorance or doubt, particularly the publication of inaccurate or misleading scientific data. It was coined in 1995 by Robert N. Proctor, a Stanford University professor, and linguist Iain Boal. The word is based on the Neoclassical Greek word ἄγνωσις, agnōsis, "not knowing", and -λογία, -logia. Proctor cites as a prime example the tobacco industrys advertising campaign to manufacture doubt about the cancerous and other health effects of tobacco use. More generally, the term also highlights the condition where more knowledge of a subject leaves ...

Arationality

Arationality is the state or characteristic of being arational, of being outside the domain of reason. The term is distinct from irrationality, which describes a state that goes against reason rather than beyond it. In this regard, that of going beyond reason, arationality is also contrary to positivism, the belief that reality can be understood rationally. Arationality is also identified with certain pre-modern modes of thinking, including magic and ritual.

Knowledge ark

A knowledge ark is a collection of knowledge preserved in such a way that future generations would have access to said knowledge if current means of access were lost. Scenarios where availability to information such as the Internet would be lost could be described as Existential Risks or Extinction Level Events. A knowledge ark could take the form of a traditional Library or a modern computer database. It could also include images only such as photographs of important information, or diagrams of critical processes. A knowledge ark would have to be resistant to the effects of natural or man ...

Autoepistemic logic

The autoepistemic logic is a formal logic for the representation and reasoning of knowledge about knowledge. While propositional logic can only express facts, autoepistemic logic can express knowledge and lack of knowledge about facts. The stable model semantics, which is used to give a semantics to logic programming with negation as failure, can be seen as a simplified form of autoepistemic logic.

Bildung

Bildung refers to the German tradition of self-cultivation, wherein philosophy and education are linked in a manner that refers to a process of both personal and cultural maturation. This maturation is described as a harmonization of the individuals mind and heart and in a unification of selfhood and identity within the broader society, as evidenced with the literary tradition of Bildungsroman. In this sense, the process of harmonization of mind, heart, selfhood and identity is achieved through personal transformation, which presents a challenge to the individuals accepted beliefs. In Hege ...

Body of knowledge

A body of knowledge is the complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association. It is a type of knowledge representation by any knowledge organization. Several definitions of BOK have been developed, for example: The systematic collection of activities and outcomes in terms of their values, constructs, models, principles and instantiations, which arises from continuous discovery and validation work by members of the profession and enables self-reflective growth and reproduction of the prof ...

Book desert

A book desert is a geographic area where printed books and other reading material are allegedly hard to obtain, particularly without access to an automobile or other form of transportation. Some researchers have defined book deserts by linking them to poverty and low income, while others use a combination of factors that include census data, income, ethnicity, geography, language, and the number of books in a home. Initiatives that increase the availability of books by such measures as bookmobiles and librarians on bicycles have been offered as possible solutions to book deserts, as have L ...

Cognitive closure (philosophy)

"Transcendental naturalism" redirects here. Not to be confused with F. W. J. Schellings transcendental naturalism. In philosophy of science and philosophy of mind, cognitive closure is the proposition that human minds are constitutionally incapable of solving certain perennial philosophical problems. Owen Flanagan calls this position anti-constructive naturalism or the "new mysterianism" and the primary advocate of the hypothesis, Colin McGinn, calls it transcendental naturalism acknowledging the possibility that solutions may be an intelligent non-human of some kind. According to McGinn, ...

Cognitive justice

The concept of cognitive justice is based on the recognition of the plurality of knowledge and expresses the right of the different forms of knowledge to co-exist. Indian scholar Shiv Visvanathan coined the term cognitive justice in his 1997 book "A Carnival for Science: Essays on science, technology and development". Commenting on the destructive impact of hegemonic Western science on developing countries and non-Western cultures, Visvanathan calls for the recognition of alternative sciences or non-Western forms of knowledge. He argues that different knowledges are connected with differen ...