ⓘ Confidence trick

                                     

ⓘ Confidence trick

A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their trust. Confidence tricks exploit victims using their credulity, naïvete, compassion, vanity, irresponsibility, and greed. Researchers have defined confidence tricks as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct. intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators at the expense of their victims ".

                                     

1. Terminology

Synonyms include con, confidence game, confidence scheme, ripoff, scam, and stratagem. The perpetrator of a confidence trick or "con trick" is often referred to as a confidence or "con" man, con-artist, or a "grifter". Samuel Thompson 1821–1856 was the original "confidence man". Thompson was a clumsy swindler who asked his victims to express confidence in him by giving him money or their watch rather than gaining their confidence in a more nuanced way. A few people trusted Thompson with their money and watches. Thompson was arrested in July 1849.

Reporting about this arrest, Dr James Houston, a reporter of the New York Herald, publicized Thompson by naming him the "Confidence Man". Although Thompson was an unsuccessful scammer, he gained reputation as a genius operator mostly because Houstons satirical tone wasnt understood as such. The National Police Gazette coined the term "confidence game" a few weeks after Houston first used the name "confidence man".

A confidence trick is also known as a con game, a con, a scam, a grift, a hustle, a bunko or bunco, a swindle, a flimflam, a gaffle, or a bamboozle. The intended victims are known as marks, suckers, stooges, mugus, rubes, or gulls from the word gullible. When accomplices are employed, they are known as shills.

                                     

1.1. Terminology Short and long cons

A short con or "small con" is a fast swindle which takes just minutes. It typically aims to rob the victim of everything in his wallet.

A "long con" or "big con" also, chiefly British English: long game is a scam that unfolds over several days or weeks and involves a team of swindlers, as well as props, sets, extras, costumes, and scripted lines. It aims to rob the victim of huge sums of money or valuables, often by getting him or her to empty out banking accounts and borrow from family members.

                                     

2. Stages of the con

In Confessions of a Confidence Man, Edward H. Smith lists the "six definite steps or stages of growth" of a confidence game. He notes that some steps may be omitted.

Foundation work Preparations are made in advance of the game, including the hiring of any assistants required and studying the background knowledge needed for the role. Approach The victim is approached or contacted. Build-up The victim is given an opportunity to profit from participating in a scheme. The victims greed is encouraged, such that their rational judgment of the situation might be impaired. Pay-off or convincer The victim receives a small payout as a demonstration of the schemes purported effectiveness. This may be a real amount of money, or faked in some way. In a gambling con, the victim is allowed to win several small bets. In a stock market con, the victim is given fake dividends. The "hurrah" A sudden manufactured crisis or change of events forces the victim to act or make a decision immediately. This is the point at which the con succeeds or fails. With a financial scam, the con artist may tell the victim that the "window of opportunity" to make a large investment in the scheme is about to suddenly close forever. The in-and-in A conspirator in on the con, but assumes the role of an interested bystander puts an amount of money into the same scheme as the victim, to add an appearance of legitimacy. This can reassure the victim, and give the con man greater control when the deal has been completed.

In addition, some games require a "corroboration" step, particularly those involving a fake, but purportedly "rare item" of "great value". This usually includes the use of an accomplice who plays the part of an uninvolved initially skeptical third party, who later confirms the claims made by the con man.



                                     

3. Vulnerability factors

Confidence tricks exploit typical human characteristics such as greed, dishonesty, vanity, opportunism, lust, compassion, credulity, irresponsibility, desperation, and naïvety. As such, there is no consistent profile of a confidence trick victim; the common factor is simply that the victim relies on the good faith of the con artist. Victims of investment scams tend to show an incautious level of greed and gullibility, and many con artists target the elderly, but even alert and educated people may be taken in by other forms of a confidence trick. Researchers Huang and Orbach argue:

Cons succeed for inducing judgment errors - chiefly, errors arising from imperfect information and cognitive biases. In popular culture and among professional con men, the human vulnerabilities that cons exploit are depicted as dishonesty, greed, and gullibility of the marks. Dishonesty, often represented by the expression you cant cheat an honest man, refers to the willingness of marks to participate in unlawful acts, such as rigged gambling and embezzlement. Greed, the desire to get something for nothing, is a shorthand expression of marks beliefs that too-good-to-be-true gains are realistic. Gullibility reflects beliefs that marks are suckers and fools for entering into costly voluntary exchanges. Judicial opinions occasionally echo these sentiments.

Accomplices, also known as shills, help manipulate the mark into accepting the perpetrators plan. In a traditional confidence trick, the mark is led to believe that he will be able to win money or some other prize by doing some task. The accomplices may pretend to be strangers who have benefited from performing the task in the past.

Elderly people and people with cognitive problems have been targeted by con artists.