ⓘ HMG-CoA reductase

                                     

ⓘ HMG-CoA reductase

HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-controlling enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein via the LDL receptor as well as oxidized species of cholesterol. Competitive inhibitors of the reductase induce the expression of LDL receptors in the liver, which in turn increases the catabolism of plasma LDL and lowers the plasma concentration of cholesterol, which is considered, by those who accept the standard lipid hypothesis, an important determinant of atherosclerosis. This enzyme is thus the target of the widely available cholesterol-lowering drugs known collectively as the statins.

HMG-COA reductase lies in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, and was long regarded as having seven transmembrane domains With the active site located in a long carboxyl terminal domain in the cytosol. More recent evidence shows that it contains eight transmembrane domains.

In humans, the gene for HMG-COA and NADPH to the reductase is located on the long arm of the fifth chromosome 5q13.3-14. Related enzymes having the same function are also present in other animals, plants and bacteria.

                                     
  • In molecular biology, the HMG - CoA reductase family is a family of enzymes which participate in the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces
  • HMG - CoA synthase. In the final step of mevalonate biosynthesis, HMG - CoA reductase an NADPH - dependent oxidoreductase, catalyzes the conversion of HMG - CoA
  • The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG - CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea
  • A reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction. 5α - Reductase 5β - Reductase Dihydrofolate reductase HMG - CoA reductase Methemoglobin reductase
  • consistent findings on physical examination, the presence of anti HMG - CoA reductase antibodies in a person with myopathy, evidence of muscle breakdown
  • Statins, also known as HMG - CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid - lowering medications that reduce illness and mortality in those who are at high
  • levels of cholesterol stop the production of mevalonate by inhibiting HMG - CoA reductase Mevalonic acid is very soluble in water and polar organic solvents
  • The discovery of HMG - CoA 3 - hydroxy - 3 - methylglutaryl - CoA reductase inhibitors, called statins, was a breakthrough in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia
  • Penicillium citrinum by Akira Endo in the 1970s, and he identified it as a HMG - CoA reductase inhibitor, i.e., a statin. Mevastatin might be considered the first
  • dulcis, belongs to the family of biflavonoids and is an inhibitor of HMG - CoA reductase Tuansulong, KA Hutadilok - Towatana, N Mahabusarakam, W Pinkaew
  • benzodiazepine tolerance. Mexazolam is metabolised via the CYP3A4 pathway. HMG - CoA reductase inhibitors including simvastatin, simvastatin acid, lovastatin, fluvastatin
  • the HMG - CoA reductase making it unavailable for HMG - CoA Cerivastatin is a pure synthetic drug, produced to create a more potent inhibitor of HMG - CoA reductase