ⓘ Mefistofele

                                     

ⓘ Mefistofele

Mefistofele is an opera in a prologue, four acts and an epilogue, the only completed opera with music by the Italian composer-librettist Arrigo Boito. The opera was given its premiere on 5 March 1868 at La Scala, Milan, under the baton of the composer, despite his lack of experience and skill as a conductor.

However, it was not a success and was immediately withdrawn after only two performances. Revisions in 1875 resulted in success in Bologna and, with further adjustments in 1876 for Venice, the opera was performed elsewhere.

                                     

1. Composition history

Boito began consideration of an opera on the Faustian theme after completing his studies at the Milan Conservatory in 1861. Mefistofele is one of many pieces of classical music based on the Faust legend and, like many other composers, Boito used Goethes version as his starting point. He was an admirer of Richard Wagner and, like him, chose to write his own libretto, something which was virtually unheard of in Italian opera up to that time. Much of the text is actually a literal translation from Goethes German to Boitos Italian.

The most popular earlier work based on the legend was Charles Gounods opera Faust, which Boito regarded as a superficial and frivolous treatment of a profound subject. Furthermore, Boito was contemptuous of what he saw as the low operatic standards prevailing in Italy at that time, and he determined to make his new work distinctive, both musically and intellectually, different from anything that had been heard before. He hoped that it would be a wake-up call and an inspiration to other young Italian composers.

The piano-vocal score was completed in 1867 while Boito was visiting relatives in Poland.

                                     

2.1. Performance history and revisions 19th century

As the evening of 5 March 1868 premiere performance progressed, the hostility of the audience, unfamiliar with Boitos avant-garde musical style and unimpressed by many of the scenes notably the scene in the emperors court, steadily increased. Furthermore, the work was far too long and the cast inadequate for the complexities of the music. When the curtain finally came down well after midnight, it was clear that the premiere had been a failure. After just two performances, with the second one being divided into two sections and presented on successive evenings, the opera was withdrawn.

Boito immediately set to work revising his opera, greatly reduced its length by about one-third by making many scenes smaller in scale. The most important changes were the following: Boito removed the entire first scene of the original act 4 scene in the imperial court, symphonic intermezzo "La Battaglia" and expanded act 5 as an epilogue, adding the duet "Lontano, lontano" to act 3 in the process. Faust was changed from a baritone to a tenor.

The revised version was premiered in Bologna on 4 October 1875, this time sung by what is generally regarded to be a very fine cast, and was an immediate success. This change in reception is thought to be partly due to Boitos revisions making the opera more traditional in style, and also to the Italian audience having become familiar with, and more willing to accept, developments in opera associated with those of Richard Wagner.

Boito made further minor revisions during 1876, and this version was first performed at the Teatro Rossini in Venice on 13 May 1876. The first British performance took place at Her Majestys Theatre, London on 6 July 1880 and the American premiere was on 16 November 1880 in Boston. Thereafter, Boito continued to make small changes until the final definitive production in Milan on 25 May 1881.

                                     

2.2. Performance history and revisions 20th century and beyond

In the early 20th century, revivals of the opera were associated particularly with the famous Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin: he sang the title role on the occasion of his first appearance outside Russia and also on his North American debut. Chaliapin made his first appearance at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, on 25 May 1926. Parts of a subsequent performance on 31 May were recorded by His Masters Voice.

In 1969, the New York City Opera presented a new production by Tito Capobianco, with Norman Treigle scoring his greatest success in the title role.

The Metropolitan Opera has given the work from time to time since it first appeared there on 5 December 1883. The Royal Opera in London has only given one performance of the opera, a concert version in March 1998 at the Barbican Centre, with Samuel Ramey as the title character.

As Mefistofele, Ramey made the role a signature one, appearing in many productions in the 1980s and early 1990s, including one given by the San Francisco Opera in November 1994. San Francisco Opera revived the 1994 production of the opera as the first production of its 2013/14 season with Ildar Abdrazakov as Mefistofele, Patricia Racette as Margherita and Ramon Vargas as Faust.

The opera was performed as part of the 2013/14 season at the Croatian National Theatre HNK Split, directed by Michal Znaniecki and conducted by Niksa Bareza.

In August 2014, the opera was performed at the 13th Opera Festival of the Theatro da Paz in Belem, Brazil, after a 50-year hiatus from Brazilian theaters. There Mefistofele was played by Denis Sedov and Faust played by Fernando Portari.



                                     

3.1. Synopsis Prologue

A heavenly chorus of angels praises God the Creator. Mefistofele scornfully declares that he can win the soul of Faust. His challenge is accepted by the Forces of Good.

                                     

3.2. Synopsis Act 1

Scene 1, Easter Sunday

The aged Dr. Faust and his pupil Wagner are watching the Easter celebrations in the main square in Frankfurt. Faust senses that they are being followed by a mysterious friar, about whom he senses something evil. Wagner dismisses his master’s feelings of unease and as darkness falls they return to Faust’s home

Scene 2, The Pact

Faust is in his study, deep in contemplation. His thoughts are disturbed in dramatic fashion by the sudden appearance of the sinister friar, whom he now recognizes as a manifestation of the Devil Mefistofele. Far from being terrified, Faust is intrigued and enters into a discussion with Mefistofele culminating in an agreement by which he will give his soul to the devil on his death in return for worldly bliss for the remainder of his life.

                                     

3.3. Synopsis Act 3

Fausts vision had been true. Margareta lies in a dismal cell, her mind in a state of confusion and despair. She has been imprisoned and condemned to death for poisoning her mother with the sleeping draught supplied by Faust and for drowning the baby she had borne him. Faust begs Mefistofele to help them escape together. They enter the cell and at first Margareta does not recognize her rescuers. Her joy at being reunited with Faust turns to horror when she sees Mefistofele and recognizes that he is the Devil. Refusing to succumb to further evil, Margareta begs for divine forgiveness. She collapses to the cell floor as the Celestial choir proclaims her redemption.



                                     

3.4. Synopsis Act 4

Mefistofele has now transported Faust back in time to Ancient Greece. Helen of Troy and her followers are enjoying the luxurious and exotic surroundings on the banks of a magnificent river. Faust, attired more splendidly than ever, is easily able to win the heart of the beautiful princess. In a passionate outpouring they declare their undying love and devotion to each other.

                                     

3.5. Synopsis Epilogue

Back in his study, Faust, once more an old man, reflects that neither in the world of reality nor of illusion was he able to find the perfect experience he craved. He feels that the end of his life is close, but desperate for his final victory, Mefistofele urges him to embark on more exotic adventures. For a moment Faust hesitates, but suddenly seizing his Bible he cries out for Gods forgiveness. Mefistofele has been thwarted; he disappears back into the ground as Faust dies and the Celestial choir once more sings of ultimate redemption.

                                     

4. In popular culture

Batman Begins depicts the opera being performed onstage, using an excerpt of "Rampiamo, rampiamo, che il tempo ci gabba" Chorus of Warlocks and Witches from act 2, scene 2 from the 1973 EMI see "Recordings" above. During the scene, performers dressed as bat-like monsters frighten young Bruce Wayne, who asks to leave.

An avant-garde video directed by Yevhen Tymokhin on a remix with the verse "E mia madre addormentata" from Margaretas aria in act 3 was awarded the Euro Video Grand Prix 2006.

                                     
  • The Fiat Mephistopheles known in Italian as Mefistofele is a one - off racing car created by Ernest A.D. Eldridge in 1923 by combining a Fiat racing car
  • contes d Hoffmann the four Villains Boris Godunov and, especially, Mefistofele In the autumn of 1974, Treigle made his debut at Covent Garden in a
  • Amilcare Ponchielli s operatic masterpiece La Gioconda and his own opera Mefistofele Along with Emilio Praga and his own brother Camillo Boito, he is regarded
  • Heinrich in Lohengrin 6 as Sarastro in The Magic Flute 1 as Mefistofele in Mefistofele 1 1889 - Royal Italian Opera Season from 18 May to 27 July as
  • New York City Opera, as Musetta in La boheme. She also sang there in Mefistofele directed by Tito Capobianco Madama Butterfly opposite Jose Carreras
  • Mefistofele in Stanley Sadie and Laura Macy, eds., The Grove Book of Opera Oxford University Press 2009 403. ISBN 9780195309072 Il Mefistofele di
  • Marke, Gurnemanz, etc. Other notable roles included Oroveso, Alvise and Mefistofele one of his greatest roles. Neri had a dark, powerful, cavernous voice
  • roles, he took over the Faustian devils in Gounod s Faust and Boito s Mefistofele vacated by the early death of Treigle. As his repertoire expanded he
  • retired from the stage in 1969, his last role being Faust of Boito s Mefistofele Poggi had a fine spinto tenor voice, occasionally inclined to hardness