ⓘ History by period

                                     

ⓘ History by period

Ancient history refers to the time period in which scientists have found the earliest remains of human activity, approximately 60.000 BC. It ends with the fall of several significant empires, such as the Western Roman Empire in the Mediterranean, the Han Dynasty in China, and the Gupta Empire in India, collectively around 650 AD.

The Bronze Age is the time period in which humans around the world began to use bronze as a major metal in tools. It is generally accepted as starting around 3600 BC and ending with the advent of iron in 1000 BC.

The Iron Age is often called Antiquity or the Classical Era, but these periods more commonly refer to only one region. It begins around 1000 BC with the widespread use of iron in tools. It is often accepted to end at approximately 650 AD, with the fall of the aforementioned major civilizations.

Note that BC and BCE refer to the same time period. BCE is an abbreviation for Before Common Era, and BC for Before Christ. AD is Anno Domini, and CE is Common Era. This is done in order to standardize time periods across the world ISO 8601.

  • Keeladi Tamil Civilization 600 BCE
  • History of Mesopotamia 6000 BCE - 1100 BCE
  • New Kingdom Egypt, 1300 BCE - 700 BCE
  • Mediterranean Antiquity
  • Indus Valley Civilization 3500 BCE - 1300 BCE
  • Ancient Rome 753 BCE - 476 CE
  • Middle Kingdom Egypt, 2000 BCE - 1300 BCE
  • Classical India 230 BCE - 500 CE
  • Vedic period India 1750 - 500 BCE
  • Stone Age Ended between 6000 and 2000 BCE depending on the area; until 1600s European contact in Australia
  • Three Kingdoms China, 220 – 280
  • Zhou Dynasty China, 1200 BCE – 500 BCE
  • Shang Dynasty China 1800 BCE - 1200 BCE
  • Six Dynasties China, 220 CE – 581 CE
  • Mahajanapadas India 600 - 300 BCE
  • Old Kingdom Egypt, 3000 BCE - 2000 BC
  • Ancient Greece, circa 1000 BCE – 146 BCE see Timeline of Ancient Greece
  • Late Antiquity Europe, circa 300 CE - circa 476 CE
                                     

1. Post-classical history 500 – 1500

The Postclassical Era, also referred to as the Medieval period or, for Europe, the Middle Ages, begins around 500 CE after the fall of major civilizations, covering the advent of Islam. The period ends around 1450–1500, with events like the rise of moveable-type printing in Europe, the voyages of Christopher Columbus, and the Ottoman Empires conquest of Constantinople.

  • High Middle Ages Europe, 11th century – 14th century
  • Middle Ages Europe, 5th century – 15th century
  • Late Middle Ages Europe, 14th century – 15th century
  • Early Middle Ages Europe, 5th century – 11th century
  • Viking Age
  • Capetian dynasty France, 987–1792, 1814 and 1815–1848
  • Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms China, 907–960
  • Islamic Golden Age Middle East, 750–1300
  • Direct Valois France, 1328–1498
  • Nara period Japan, 709–795
  • Direct Capetians France, 987–1328
  • Byzantine Empire Southeast Europe, 476–1453
  • Merovingian dynasty France, 481–751
  • Middle kingdoms of India, 500–1206
  • Carolingian dynasty France, 751–987
  • Northern Crusades Europe, 1147–1410
  • Sengoku period Japan, 1478–1605
  • Crusades in the Holy Land Mediterranean Sea, 1095–1291
                                     

2.1. Modern history 1500 – present Early Modern Period 1500 – 1750

The Early Modern Period is the first third of the Modern Period and is often used with the parent categorization. It starts with the invention of the printing press, covering the voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and, more generally, the establishment of a more global network. It ends in 1750 with the beginning of British industrialization.

  • Qing dynasty China, 1644–1912
  • Age of Sail - referring to commercial and military impact of sailing technology, usually dated as 1571 - 1862.
  • Age of Discovery or Exploration Europe, 16th century - 18th century
  • The Protestant Reformation Europe, 16th century
  • House of Valois-Orleans France, 1498–1515 and Valois-Angoulême France, 1515–1589
  • The Renaissance Europe, 14th century - 17th century
  • Elizabethan period England, 1558–1603
  • House of Bourbon France, 1589–1792
  • The Age of Enlightenment Europe, 18th century
                                     

2.2. Modern history 1500 – present Late Modern Period 1750 – 1945

The Age of Revolution is a less commonly used period, but appropriately covers the time between the early modern and contemporary. It begins around 1750 with European industrialization and is marked by several political revolutions. It ends around 1945, with the relative advancement of industrialization in Europe, the United States, Japan, and Russia, and the end of World War II.

  • Second French Empire France, 1852–1870
  • The Roaring Twenties
  • House of Bourbon and Bourbon Restoration France, 1814 and 1815–1830
  • Victorian era United Kingdom, 1837–1901
  • World War I Much of Earth, 1914–1918
  • World War II Earth, 1939–1945
  • Interwar period Earth, 1918–1939
  • The Great Depression
  • Machine Age
  • French Revolution and Napoleonic Era
  • French Second Republic France, 1848–1852
  • House of Orleans and July Monarchy France, 1830–1848
  • Meiji era Japan, 1868–1912
  • Edwardian period United Kingdom, 1901–1910
  • French Third Republic France, 1870–1940
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Gilded Age United States, 1870–1900


                                     

2.3. Modern history 1500 – present Contemporary Period 1945 – present

The Contemporary Period generally covers history still in living memory, approximately 100 years behind the current year. However, for all intents and purposes, the period will be used here as spanning from the second world war in 1945 to present day, as it is considered separate from the past eras and the newest stage of world history.

  • Cold War
  • Post 9/11 Era after September 11, 2001
  • Information Age 1971–present
  • Space Age after 1957
  • Post-communist period Russia and other former Soviet states, after 1991 / Post-Cold War Western world after 1991