ⓘ Ç

                                     

ⓘ Ç

Ç or ç is a Latin script letter, used in the Albanian, Azerbaijani, Manx, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Kurdish, Zazaki, and Romance alphabets. Romance languages that use this letter include Catalan, French, Friulian, Ligurian, Occitan, and Portuguese as a variant of the letter C. It is also occasionally used in Crimean Tatar and in Tajik to represent the /d͡ʒ/ sound. It is often retained in the spelling of loanwords from any of these languages in English, Basque, Dutch, Spanish and other Latin script spelled languages.

It was first used for the sound of the voiceless alveolar affricate /t͡s/ in Old Spanish and stems from the Visigothic form of the letter z Ꝣ. The phoneme originated in Vulgar Latin from the palatalization of the plosives /t/ and /k/ in some conditions. Later, /t͡s/ changed into /s/ in many Romance languages and dialects. Spanish has not used the symbol since an orthographic reform in the 18th century which replaced ç with the now-devoiced z, but it was adopted for writing other languages.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /ç/ represents the voiceless palatal fricative.

                                     

1. Usage as a letter variant in various languages

In many languages, ⟨ç⟩ represents the "soft" sound /s/ where a ⟨c⟩ would normally represent the "hard" sound /k/. These include:

  • Portuguese cê-cedilha or cê cedilhado: it is used before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩: taça cup, braço arm, açucar sugar. Modern Portuguese does not use the character at the beginning or at the end of a word the nickname for Conceição is São, not Ção. According to a Portuguese grammar written in 1550, the letter ç had the sound of /dz/ around that time. Another grammar written around 1700 would say that the letter ç sounds like /s, which shows a phonetic evolution that is still valid today.
  • Occitan ce cedilha: torçut twisted, ço this, ça que la nevertheless, braç arm, breç cradle, voraç voracious. It can occur at the beginning of a word.
  • Catalan. Known as ce trencada broken C in this language, where it can be used before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ or at the end of a word. Some examples of words with ⟨ç⟩ are amenaça menace, torçat twisted, xoriço chorizo, forçut strong, dolç sweet and caça hunting. A well-known word with this character is Barça, a common Catalan clipping of Futbol Club Barcelona.
  • French ce cedille: français French, garçon boy, façade frontage, grinçant squeaking, leçon lesson, reçu received. French does not use the character at the end of a word but it can occur at the beginning of a word e.g., ça, that.

In other languages, it represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate /t͡ʃ/ like ⟨ch⟩ in English chalk:

  • Friulian c cun cedilie before ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ or at the end of a word.
  • Turkish: çelik steel, çilek strawberry, and çamur mud.

In Manx, it is used in the digraph ⟨çh⟩, which also represents /t͡ʃ, to differentiate it from normal ⟨ch⟩, which represents /x/.

                                     

1.1. Usage as a letter variant in various languages In loanwords only

  • In modern Spanish it can appear in loanwords, especially in Catalan proper nouns.
  • In Basque, ⟨ç⟩ known as ze hautsia is used in the loanword curaçao.
  • In Dutch, it can be found in some words from French and Portuguese, such as façade, reçu, Provençaals and Curaçao.
  • In English, ⟨ç⟩ is used in loanwords such as façade and limaçon although the cedilla mark is often dropped: ⟨facade⟩, ⟨limacon⟩.
                                     

2. Usage as a separate letter in various languages

It represents the voiceless postalveolar affricate /t͡ʃ/ in the following languages:

  • the 4th letter of the Albanian alphabet.
  • the 4th letter of the Zazaki alphabet.
  • the 4th letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet.
  • the 5th letter of the Tatar alphabet based on Zamanalif.
  • the 4th letter of the Turkish alphabet.
  • the 3rd letter of the Turkmen alphabet.

It previously represented a voiceless palatal click /ǂ/ in Juǀhoansi and Naro, though the former has replaced it with ⟨ǂ⟩ and the latter with ⟨tc⟩.

The similarly shaped letter the ҫ is used in the Cyrillic alphabets of Bashkir and Chuvash to represent /θ/ and /ɕ, respectively.

It also represents the retroflex flap /ɽ/ in the Rohingya Latin alphabet.

Janalif uses this letter to represent the voiced postalveolar affricate /d͡ʒ/

                                     

3.1. Computer Input

On Albanian, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish and Italian keyboards, Ç is directly available as a separate key; however, on most other keyboards, including the US and British keyboard, a combination of keys must be used:

  • In Microsoft Windows, these are Alt + 0 2 3 1 or Alt + 1 3 5 for lowercase and Alt + 0 1 9 or Alt + 1 2 8 for uppercase.
  • In Microsoft Word, these are Ctrl +, and then either C or ⇧ Shift + C.
  • In TeX and LaTeX, \c is used for adding the cedilla accent to a letter, so \c{c} produces "ç".
  • In classic Mac OS and macOS, these are ⌥ Opt + C and ⌥ Opt + ⇧ Shift + C for lower- and uppercase, respectively.
  • In the X Window System and many Unix consoles, one presses sequentially Compose, and either C or ⇧ Shift + C. Alternatively, one may press AltGr + = and then either C or ⇧ Shift + C.
  • In the US-International keyboard layout, these are followed by either C or ⇧ Shift + C. Alternatively one may press AltGr +, or AltGr + ⇧ Shift +.
  • The HTML character entity references are ç and Ç for lower- and uppercase, respectively.


                                     
  • romanization during the mid - 1950s Add to C with diacritics C with diacritics: C c Ĉ ĉ Č c C c Ḉ ḉ Ƈ ƈ C c Ȼ ȼ Ç ç Ꞔ ꞔ Ꞓ ꞓ Ↄ ↄ : Claudian letters : copyright
  • C minuscule: c is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from C with the addition of a dot. It is used in Maltese to represent a voiceless palato - alveolar
  • The grapheme Čc Latin C with caron, also known as hacek in Czech, makcen in Slovak, and stresica in Slovene is used in various contexts, usually denoting
  • Ƈ minuscule: ƈ is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from C with the addition of a hook. It is used in African languages such as Serer. The minuscule
  • Control - C is a common computer command. It is generated by pressing the C key while holding down the Ctrl key on most computer keyboards. In graphical
  • Ȼ minuscule: ȼ is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from C with the addition of a stroke through the letter. Its minuscule form is used in some
  • Enclosed C or circled Latin C or is a typographical symbol. As one of many enclosed alphanumerics, the symbol is a C within a circle. The capitalized
  • the voiceless postalveolar affricate consonant in Chechen was ç but was changed to c just as s was changed to s It is also used in the digraph c h
  • Stretched C ʗ is a letter of the Latin alphabet used to represent a kind of click consonant. This sound has been described as alveolar, postalveolar
  • The copyright symbol, or copyright sign, a circled capital letter C for copyright is the symbol used in copyright notices for works other than sound
  • symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɕ c plus the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ʑ It is the sibilant
  • The Phonetic Extensions Supplement block has several more: Latin IPA ᶛ ᶜ ᶝ ᶞ ᶟ ᶠ ᶡ ᶢ ᶣ ᶤ ᶥ ᶦ ᶧ ᶨ ᶩ ᶪ ᶫ ᶬ ᶭ ᶮ ᶯ ᶰ ᶱ ᶲ ᶳ ᶴ ᶵ ᶶ ᶷ ᶸ ᶹ ᶺ ᶻ ᶼ ᶽ ᶾ, Greek