ⓘ Bicuspid aortic valve
Bicuspid aortic valve is an inherited form of heart disease in which two of the leaflets of the aortic valve fuse during development in the womb resulting in a two-leaflet valve instead of the normal three-leaflet valve. BAV is the most common cause of heart disease present at birth and affects approximately 1.3% of adults. Normally, the mitral valve is the only bicuspid valve and this is situated between the hearts left atrium and left ventricle. Heart valves play a crucial role in ensuring the unidirectional flow of blood from the atrium to the ventricles, or from the ventricle to the aorta or pulmonary trunk.
A bicuspid aortic valve can cause aortic heart valve in the narrow aortic stenosis. This narrowing prevents the valve full open, which reduces or blocks the flow of blood from the heart to the body. In some cases, the aortic valve does not close tightly, causing blood to flow back into the left ventricle.
Coarctation of the aorta congenital narrowing in the region of the ductus arteriosus has also been associated with BAV.