ⓘ P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

                                     

ⓘ P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases that are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock, and are involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy. Persistent activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in muscle satellite cells due to ageing, impairs muscle regeneration.

Mar-kinase P38 mark, also called RK or in the manual cytokinin specific binding protein, is the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Hog1p map kinase, which participates in a signaling cascade controlling cellular responses to cytokines and stress.

Four P38 Mar-kinases, P38-α MAPK14, -MAPK11 β, -γ MAPK12 / ERK6, and -δ MAPK13 / SAPK4 were identified. Similar to the "SAPK" / path JNK, P38 Map-kinase is activated by various cellular stresses, including osmotic shock, inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharides LPS, UV light and growth factors.

MKK3 and SEK activate of Mar-kinase P38 phosphorylation in odd-180 and Tyr-182. Activation of Mar-kinase P38 has been shown fosfauriliruet and activate MAPKAP kinase 2 and to phosphorylate the transcription factors ATF2, Mac and MEF2. P. 38 has also been shown to phosphorylate post-transcriptional regulating factors like TTP.