ⓘ Television Nacional de Chile
Television Nacional de Chile is a Chilean public service broadcaster. It was founded by order of President Eduardo Frei Montalva and it was launched nationwide on 18 September 1969. Since then, the company has been reorganized on several occasions and its operations areas have increased over the years, becoming one of the leading television broadcaster in Chile and South America. The law 17 377 of 1970 established that TVN must be a public, autonomous, pluralistic and representative public service. His public mission determines the obligation to promote the national cultural identity, the values of democracy, human rights, care for the environment and respect for diversity. Furthermore, TVN governs the programming of its services according to criteria established by the National Television Council.
Its headquarters are located in Providencia, Santiago Metropolitan Region and it employs over 1.083 staff in total, distributed in various areas. The company is directed through a chairman appointed by the President of the Republic, which has a duration of four years, synchronized with the presidential period. The other six members of the board of directors are appointed three times per period in agreement between the Senate and the President of the Republic, for eight years. To them, a seventh member is added who is chosen democratically by the staff. As of December 2019 the chairman of Television Nacional is Ana Holuigue by appointment of the current President of Chile, Sebastian Piñera. While the executive director and legal representative is Francisco Guijon since 2019.
Television Nacional is the only public owned television company in Chile and competes for audiences with other private broadcasting groups, having a self-financing scheme based mainly on its advertising sales that it has preserved since its inception and later regulated by act 19.132 of 1992. TVN under the act 20.694 of 2013, it can fulfill the tasks of exploitation of television services and production of audiovisual or broadcasting content, and also act as a concessionaire of telecommunications services. Additionally, it is affiliated with the National Association of Television of Chile ANATEL, the Council of Self-Regulation and Advertising Ethics CONAR and the Organizacion de Telecomunicaciones de Iberoamerica OTI, among others.
1.1. History Origin of public television
The origins of television in Chile take ground after the promulgation of the television law 7.039 on 28 October 1958, which was the first legislation of its kind in that country. This regulation was decreed and implemented by the government of then President Jorge Alessandri in view of the need to regulate the only three existing channels in the national territory: Canal 13, Canal 9 and UCV Television, which at that time were university property and therefore private.
The essential need of owning a channel belonging to the Chilean State took relevance from the 1960 decade as the great challenge that the government of Eduardo Frei Montalva wanted to face, believing ideally the existence of a public television with national coverage capable of transmitting in a territory of large geographical features. To this end, a limited liability company was created whose original partners were the entrepreneurship agency CORFO, the production company Chilefilms and Entel, all of which were at that time, public owned, establishing Television Nacional de Chile on 31 January 1969 through the telecommunications trunk network of that country and a series of test transmissions that remained until several years later.
1.2. History Development of Television Nacional 1968-1969
The first regional station established by Television Nacional de Chile was Aricas Channel 7 with the support of the Board of Advancement of Arica Junta de Adelanto de Arica, initiating its broadcast on 11 December 1968 with provisional studios located in the Edificio Plaza and its transmitter located then in the Morro de Arica. It was officially inaugurated the same day by President Eduardo Frei Montalva, counting only on programming relayed from Santiago. Subsequently, as 1 February 1969 the broadcast of channel 6 of Punta Arenas began with an inauguration attended by President Eduardo Frei Montalva, as well as the Intendant of Magallanes, Mateo Martinic.
On 21 May 1969 Talca began to receive TVN broadcasts on Channel 10 direct from Santiago even when the Santiago channel was not inaugurated until some months later. On 15 July 1969, the broadcast of channel 6 of Antofagasta were officially inaugurated, making some local programs and receiving programming from Santiago with some days of delay. Finally, on 18 September of that year, started the regular transmissions of Channel 7 on Santiago. This channel had previously and experimentally broadcast Chiles matches in the Davis Cup that year, the presidential message of 21 May Navy Day and the arrival of man on the Moon.
1.3. History Establishment of the national network 1969-1973
After the regular broadcasts of Television Nacional began officially in Santiago on September 1969, covering at that time 6 of the 25 provinces of the national territory and having a stable programming with more than twelve hours of daily broadcast, although unlike what was expected, operating under the model of subsidiaries or associated channels in the provinces. Initially the first studios of the new network were concentrated in a house leased to the family of the poet Vicente Huidobro, located at the intersections of Libertador General Bernardo OHiggins Avenue Alameda and San Martin Street, near the Torre Entel. Then they moved to one side of the Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral and finally the then new permanent studios were inaugurated on 20 August 1970 in Providencia.
The expansion of the main signal was carried out in Iquique on 23 May 1970 on Channel 10 while on 2 July TVN was launched in Calama and Chuquicamata, also on channel 10. In August of the same year the expansion of the network included Valdivia on channel 3, Osorno on channel 5, Puerto Montt on channel 4, and Ancud on channel 7. Subsequently, its expansion would reach new locations, such as Coyhaique on 21 May 1971, La Serena and Coquimbo on channel 4 in June 1972 and Castro on channel 10 on early 1973. TVN, already positioned as a means of information at the beginning of that decade, had to be ordered by law 17.377 of 1970, which provided legal recognition to the station and making it "public", since the law 7039 of 1958 did not contemplate this.
Originally, the networks mission was to be a pluralistic and independent media of the current government, which was intended to "integrate, inform, entertain and give culture to the Chilean family", concepts that the Ministry of Education and the group of professionals who directed TVN, they started at the beginning. However, the situation of the country was convulsed and in constant division, for that reason the governments of President Salvador Allende initially and the dictador Augusto Pinochet later, used the channel as means of propaganda and political idealism to promote in the television audiences support to their governments and ideologies.
1.4. History Military dictatorship 1973-1990
On 11 September 1973 after the coup detat in the morning, Television Nacional did not start broadcasting during the day and the studios were closed for three days, there was also an assault on the headquarters, where abundant amounts of audiovisual material were burned by the military, ending with a large part of the records of the first years of broadcast. During the three days it was closed, Canal 13 decided to occupy the TVN national network, because it was the only one authorized to broadcast after the coup detat. After resuming the broadcast, it becomes the official television media of the new military dictatorship with informative management and strong control in the programming, granting advantage in audiences to Canal 13 news programme Teletrece, which was considered more liberal".
The first experimental colour-broadcast in Chile was developed by Television Nacional in the final night of the Viña del Mar International Song Festival on 6 February 1978. However, the decree 480 that was in force since 10 September 1976, restricted the import of colour television sets. This regulation promulgated by Augusto Pinochet, was abolished on 10 April of that year with the promulgation of a new resolution that allowed the emission in colour, norman as official definition in that country the NTSC format, proposed by the United States. At the time of the authorization and start-up, a large part of the networks programming was already in place and programmes such as La cafetera voladora were fully developed with this technology. This allowed the use of innumerable special effects. It astonished the childrens of the time and could extend until 1982, setting a precedent in the production of programmes of this type in Chile.
With the pass of the decade of 1980, Television Nacional grows with diverse programmes and technological advances. It became the first Chilean television network to broadcast its programming via satellite, in 1987 it released its second channel and in 1989 it inaugurated its international service. But, despite all the technical achievements, the company is criticized for its newscast 60 minutos by misrepresenting the news and information that every day reverberated society during the period, in addition to the loss of credibility, prestige and audience, led to the reorganization and rethinking the mission and identity of Television Nacional at times of political instability in Chile, as the last months of the regime were being developed, therefore, in democracy, the company seeks to be reformed and the new government authorities are prepared to make all kinds of changes.
1.5. History Return to democracy and new organisation model 1990-2000
With the arrival the decade of 1990 and the return to democracy, under the mandate of President Patricio Aylwin is decreed the second law of television 19.132 of 1992, this widely was debated between government and opposition, consecrating to the public-owned network like an autonomous company with legal personality in its own right and establishing that its assets must be managed by a board of directors, in whose designation are involved the president of the republic and the Senate, plus a representative of the staff.
This legislation sought to transform TVN into a media, autonomous, pluralistic and representative, achieving the original objective proposed at the outset of a programmatic content impartiality trying to have an independence from the government. Another factor was the complementation of a self-financing system, not receiving public funds. Subsequently, the second channel, Canal 9, was acquired by businessman Ricardo Claro and converted into Red Televisiva Megavision Mega. With the new organisation model, TVN achieves major accomplishments such as the creation of new regional television centres, the first experimental broadcast in high definition in 1999, completely remodeling the Santiago headquarters in 2000, whose first stage was inaugurated in 2002 and the second in 2005, and the creation of the online service TVN.cl in 2001.
With a programming consisting of diverse content, Television Nacional de Chile has produced and created its own spaces, as well as in association with various production companies. In addition, it has broadcast information, fiction, foreign content and sporting events since its inception. Every day the nationwide channel starts its broadcasts with the news programme 24 AM, followed by a space that occupies a large part of the morning programming; During the afternoon two main news programmes are broadcast, 24tarde at 1:00pm and 24 horas central at 9:00pm, where the last one is considered as the flagship evening news.
The soap operas and series of own production or of foreign origin have usually occupied since the beginning of the channel, the afternoon schedule, however, also since 2004, TVN has broadcast soap operas at night. Additionally, in the afternoon, apart from the dramas, programmes such as Rojo are broadcast. In the evening, after 24 horas central, the weather forecast is broadcast on TV Tiempo and then programmes or soap operas. Next, the midnight newscast Medianoche is broadcast. During the weekends, cultural, childrens or political discussion programmes such as El informante and Estado nacional are presented.
The news from Chile and the world are presented under the brand 24 horas since 1990, with several daily editions, and all the news programmes are part of the 24-hours news channel Canal 24 horas that breaks into the national channels usual programming in an emergency, delivering news bulletins, including live broadcast during earthquakes. Previously the news carried the name of Telediario, Martini al instante, Noticiero, 60 minutos, TVNoticias, and finally Noticias before its current name.
2.1. Programming Special programming
Some special programmes that are broadcast by TVN on an annual basis or from time to time, are the presidential debates that are organized by the National Television Association, general elections, special events, the messages of the President of the Republic and also the televised fundraising event Teleton, usually at the end of each year, along with other channels of Chilean television. Another activity that is covered annually is the pyrotechnic and musical show of the new years celebrations in Valparaiso. Previously, celebrations in Santiago were issued in past decades.
Television Nacional has been the official network of the Viña del Mar International Song Festival from the 1971 to 1993, between 2007 and 2010, and again since 2019; the Festival del Huaso de Olmue from 1989 to 1990, and again since 2014; the Fiesta de la Independencia de Talca since 2016 and also in past decades broadcast the OTI Festival. Some sporting events that are and have been displayed on TVN are the Summer Olympic Games and some Winter editions, the FIFA World Cup, the Copa America, the Santiago Marathon, and in the past until the Formula 1, among other events.
Also broadcasts from its inception the Great Military Parade of Chile, a parade that takes place every year in Chile on 19 September in the OHiggins Park of Santiago. The broadcast achieves high audience ratings in conjunction with other television channels, but especially in TVN because it is the channel that makes the television production of the event.
Among its signals is considered a main channel of free reception which transmits by satellite to several repeaters that are located in Chilean territories, having a reach of 98% of the population. It also has nine regional channels with its own production centres, an international service called TV Chile; the news channel Canal 24 Horas; four thematic over-the-top Internet television channels called TVN Kids, TVN Musica, TVN de Culto and 24Play; online presence with several sites and the music label TVN Records.
- TVN Red Maule Region.
- TVN Red Austral Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica Region.
- TVN Red OHiggins Region.
- TVN Red Antofagasta Region.
- TVN Red Coquimbo Region.
- TVN Red Atacama Region.
- TVN Red Biobio Bio Region and Ñuble Region.
- TVN Red Araucania Region.
- TVN Red Valparaiso Region.
4. Headquarters and regional centres
The official headquarters of Television Nacional de Chile are located in Providencia, Santiago Metropolitan Region. The complex is the home of the national channel, the internet and worldwide services, music label and Fox Sports Chile. Inaugurated in 1970, the renovation of the building began in 1999, and was completed in 2005. On 1 December 2004, suffered a fire due to an electrical failure. The incident caused the interruption of the main channel for one hour. There were no injuries and four fire companies controlled the fire.
The centre is familiar with many Chilean citizens and is currently a site visited by tour guides. Within the enclosure there is an esplanade known as "Patio de las Comunicaciones", which is occasionally used for corporate events and television programmes. The complex also includes 3 studios for the drama area, a centre for domestic, global and online news divisions and the sports area, a video editing room, auditorium, warehouses of props, file of documentation, a cafeteria, dressing rooms of artists and technical staff, technical areas, office areas for the board of directors, general management, general secretary, administration and finance, press, as well as 2 levels of underground car parks.
Television Nacional de Chile has production centres with newsrooms and studios in Antofagasta, Copiapo, La Serena, Valparaiso, Rancagua, Talca, Concepcion, Temuco and Punta Arenas. In addition has a commercial office in Arica y Parinacota Region.
5. Corporate identity
Television Nacional de Chile has a corporate identity based on the promotion and strengthening of the Chilean culture. Since its inception, the colours of the national flag have been used mostly to identify the company in their logos, such as the current one where the red colour predominates. Additionally, from 1970 to 1973, the network had a mascot named Tevito, accompanied by "Charagua" as characteristic music that was composed by Victor Jara and performed by Inti-Illimani. After the coup detat on 11 September 1973, Tevito was suddenly removed from the advertisements, several video tapes where it appeared were destroyed by army and finally it was replaced by other characters. However, Tevito was again used symbolically on 11 March 1990, day of the presidential inauguration of Patricio Aylwin. Currently, "Charagua" in Chile is usually related to Television Nacional as de facto institutional theme.
Tevito was a smiling cartoon dog personified in various ways. Sometimes he was a boxer, sometimes he wore reading glasses, and also disguised himself as a vampire. He played the trutruca, a typical instrument of the Mapuche indigenous people of southern Chile. The character was created by Carlos Gonzalez a student of the Fine Arts Institute in Santiago, Chile, whose drawing won the competition among six other submissions. Since then Tevito become part of the Chilean popular culture.
Ito e Ita was the second mascot of TVN. Debuted in 1974 and remained on screen until 1978 with the arrival of color television, they were usually accompanied by music from the band Los Huasos Quincheros. In 1979 a third mascot designed for colour broadcast named Conejito TV, was presented. Conejito TV remained until 1984 and was usually accompanied by Gabriela Velasco. In 1987, it was presented a mascot that consisted of a green extraterrestrial without name. The extraterrestrial was finally baptized as Clorofilo, in reference to the green chlorophyll, after a contest. Finally, Clorofilo was removed from the screen in mid-1988 and since then they have not used characters of that type as mascots.
The Television Nacional de Chile logo that is currently used and which was launched in August 2016 corresponds to a new version of the original design that debuted in January 2004, retaining the same typography and color, but giving it rounded edges. The "cuadrado rojo" red square is a symbol that debuted in September 1994, since then it began to be used progressively in the advertising and in 2001 it was used for the first time on screen to show the content rating system. Since then it began to draw attention and in January 2004 it ended up becoming the corporate logo. Since its release, the "red square" has influenced the logos and graphics of all brands of Television Nacional.