ⓘ Bunkers (energy in transport)

                                     

ⓘ Bunkers (energy in transport)

In energy statistics, marine bunkers and aviation bunkers as defined by the International Energy Agency are the energy consumption of ships and aircraft.

Marine and aviation bunkers are reported separately from international bunkers, which represent consumption of ships and aircraft on international routes.

International bunkers are subtracted from the energy supplies of a country to calculate its domestic consumption. It is as if international aviation and international shipping did not belong to any country. They are managed by the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO and the International Maritime Organization IMO.

                                     

1. Critics

The European Federation for Transport and Environment has only limited confidence in ICAO and IMOs ability to reduce air and sea emissions due to international bunkers and thus to comply with the Paris Climate Agreement.