ⓘ Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy

                                     

ⓘ Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy

Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy is a group of medical disorders defined by visual impairment due to optic nerve damage secondary to a toxic substance and/or nutritional deficiency. The causes of these disorders are various, but they are linked by shared signs and symptoms, which this article will describe. In several of these disorders, both toxic and nutritional factors play a role, acting synergistically.

                                     
  • Optic neuropathy is damage to the optic nerve from any cause. Damage and death of these nerve cells, or neurons, leads to characteristic features of optic
  • hereditary optic neuropathy LHON is a mitochondrially inherited transmitted from mother to offspring degeneration of retinal ganglion cells RGCs and their
  • Toxic amblyopia, or nutritional optic neuropathy is a condition where a toxic reaction in the optic nerve results in visual loss. Various poisonous substances
  • Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy AION is a medical condition involving loss of vision caused by damage to the optic nerve as a result of insufficient
  • and named Kjer s optic neuropathy in 1959 after Danish ophthalmologist Poul Kjer, who studied 19 families with the disease. Although dominant optic atrophy
  • Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy CRION is a form of recurrent optic neuritis that is steroid responsive. Patients typically present with
  • Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy PION is a medical condition characterized by damage to the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve due to inadequate
  • is multiple sclerosis or ischemic optic neuropathy due to thrombosis or embolism of the vessel that supplies the optic nerve. Up to 50 of patients with
  • Ischemic optic neuropathy ION is the loss of structure and function of a portion of the optic nerve due to obstruction of blood flow to the nerve i