Comedian Harmonists is a 1997 German film, directed by Joseph Vilsmaier, about the popular German vocal group the Comedian Harmonists of the 1920s and 1930s. The film was supported by the German and Austrian film fund.
Nails is a 2003 Russian drama horror film directed and produced by Andrey Iskanov. The film starring Andrey Iskanov, Svyatoslav Iliyasov, Chisato Morishita, Irina Nikitina and Alexander Shevchenko in the lead roles.
Day and Night is a 1997 French drama film directed by public intellectual Bernard-Henri Levy and starring Alain Delon, Lauren Bacall, Arielle Dombasle and Francisco Rabal. The film follows a French author who fled to Mexico for a quiet life and an actress who is willing to seduce him to get a part in a film adapted from one of his books. It is considered by some to be one of the worst films of all time.
Epilogue is a 1983 Soviet psychological drama film directed by Marlen Khutsiev. A screen adaptation of the story of writer Yuri Pakhomov.
Dust is a time-twisting film in which centuries and continents intertwine in an intricate tapestry. A New York thief, a tough hundred-year-old woman, two brothers from the Wild West, a Macedonian revolutionary in the Ottoman Empire, and a beautiful pregnant woman all cross paths in a tale that spans two continents and three centuries. Its fractured narrative resembles a Cubist painting. The UK-Italian-German-Spanish-Macedonian co-production, written and directed by Milcho Manchevski, stars Joseph Fiennes, David Wenham, Adrian Lester, Rosemary Murphy, Nikolna Kujaca, Anne Brochet and Vera F ...
Contempt is a 1963 French-Italian New Wave drama film written and directed by Jean-Luc Godard, based on the Italian novel Il disprezzo by Alberto Moravia. It stars Brigitte Bardot, Michel Piccoli, Jack Palance, and Giorgia Moll.
ⓘ Art film
An art film is typically a serious, independent film, aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience. It is "intended to be a serious, artistic work, often experimental and not designed for mass appeal", "made primarily for aesthetic reasons rather than commercial profit", and contains "unconventional or highly symbolic content".
Film critics and film studies scholars typically define an art film as possessing "formal qualities that mark them as different from mainstream Hollywood films". These qualities can include among other elements: a sense of social realism; an emphasis on the authorial expressiveness of the director; and a focus on the thoughts, dreams, or motivations of characters, as opposed to the unfolding of a clear, goal-driven story. Film scholar David Bordwell describes art cinema as "a film genre, with its own distinct conventions".
Art film producers usually present their films at special theaters and at film festivals. The term art film is much more widely used in North America, the United Kingdom, and Australia, compared to the mainland Europe, where the terms auteur films and national cinema e.g. German national cinema are used instead. Since they are aimed at small, niche-market audiences, art films rarely acquire the financial backing that would permit large production budgets associated with widely released blockbuster films. Art film directors make up for these constraints by creating a different type of film, one that typically uses lesser-known film actors or even amateur actors, and modest sets to make films that focus much more on developing ideas, exploring new narrative techniques, and attempting new film-making conventions.
Such films contrast sharply with mainstream blockbuster films, which are geared more towards linear storytelling and entertainment. Film critic Roger Ebert called Chungking Express, a critically acclaimed 1994 art film, "largely a cerebral experience" that one enjoys "because of what you know about film". For promotion, art films rely on the publicity generated from film critics reviews; discussion of the film by arts columnists, commentators, and bloggers; and word-of-mouth promotion by audience members. Since art films have small initial investment costs, they only need to appeal to a small portion of mainstream audiences to become financially viable.
1.1. History Antecedents: 1910–1920s
The forerunners of art films include Italian silent film LInferno 1911, D. W. Griffiths Intolerance 1916 and the works of Russian filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein, who influenced the development of European cinema movements for decades. Eisensteins film Battleship Potemkin 1925 was a revolutionary propaganda film he used to test his theories of using film editing to produce the greatest emotional response from an audience. The international critical renown that Eisenstein garnered from this film enabled him to direct October as part of a grand 10th anniversary celebration of the October Revolution of 1917. He later directed The General Line in 1929.
Art films were also influenced by films by Spanish avant-garde creators, such as Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dali who made LAge dOr in 1930, and by the French playwright and filmmaker Jean Cocteau, whose 1930s avant-garde film The Blood of a Poet uses oneiric images throughout, including spinning wire models of a human head and rotating double-sided masks. In the 1920s, film societies began advocating the notion that films could be divided into "entertainment cinema directed towards a mass audience and a serious art cinema aimed at an intellectual audience". In England, Alfred Hitchcock and Ivor Montagu formed a film society and imported films they thought were "artistic achievements", such as "Soviet films of dialectical montage, and the expressionist films of the Universum Film A.G. UFA studios in Germany".
Cinema pur, a French avant-garde film movement in the 1920s and 1930s, also influenced the development of the idea of art film. The cinema pur film movement included several notable Dada artists. The Dadaists used film to transcend narrative storytelling conventions, bourgeois traditions, and conventional Aristotelian notions of time and space by creating a flexible montage of time and space.
The cinema pur movement was influenced by German "absolute" filmmakers such as Hans Richter, Walter Ruttmann and Viking Eggeling. Richter falsely claimed that his 1921 film Rhythmus 21 was the first abstract film ever created. In fact, he was preceded by the Italian Futurists Bruno Corra and Arnaldo Ginna between 1911 and 1912 as reported in the Futurist Manifesto of Cinema, as well as by fellow German artist Walter Ruttmann, who produced Lichtspiel Opus 1 in 1920. Nevertheless, Richters film Rhythmus 21 is considered an important early abstract film.
1.2. History 1930s–1950s
In the 1930s and 1940s, Hollywood films could be divided into the artistic aspirations of literary adaptations like John Fords The Informer 1935 and Eugene ONeills The Long Voyage Home 1940, and the money-making "popular-genre films" such as gangster thrillers. William Siska argues that Italian neorealist films from the mid-to-late 1940s, such as Open City 1945, Paisa 1946, and Bicycle Thieves can be deemed as another "conscious art film movement".
In the late 1940s, the U.S. publics perception that Italian neorealist films and other serious European fare were different from mainstream Hollywood films was reinforced by the development of "arthouse cinemas" in major U.S. cities and college towns. After the Second World War, ".a growing segment of the American film going public was wearying of mainstream Hollywood films", and they went to the newly created art-film theaters to see "alternatives to the films playing in main-street movie palaces". Films shown in these art cinemas included "British, foreign-language, and independent American films, as well as documentaries and revivals of Hollywood classics". Films such as Rossellinis Open City and Mackendricks Tight Little Island Whisky Galore!, Bicycle Thieves and The Red Shoes were shown to substantial U.S. audiences.
In the late 1950s, French filmmakers began to produce films that were influenced by Italian Neorealism and classical Hollywood cinema, a style that critics called the French New Wave. Although never a formally organized movement, New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of classical cinematic form and their spirit of youthful iconoclasm, and their films are an example of European art cinema. Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm. Some of the most prominent pioneers among the group, including François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Eric Rohmer, Claude Chabrol, and Jacques Rivette, began as critics for the film magazine Cahiers du cinema. Auteur theory holds that the director is the "author" of his films, with a personal signature visible from film to film.
1.3. History 1960s–1970s
The French New Wave movement continued into the 1960s. During the 1960s, the term "art film" began to be much more widely used in the United States than in Europe. In the U.S., the term is often defined very broadly to include foreign-language non-English "auteur" films, independent films, experimental films, documentaries and short films. In the 1960s, "art film" became a euphemism in the U.S. for racy Italian and French B-movies. By the 1970s, the term was used to describe sexually explicit European films with artistic structure such as the Swedish film I Am Curious Yellow. In the U.S., the term "art film" may refer to films by modern American artists, including Andy Warhol with his 1969 film Blue Movie, but is sometimes used very loosely to refer to the broad range of films shown in repertory theaters or "art house cinemas". With this approach, a broad range of films, such as a 1960s Hitchcock film, a 1970s experimental underground film, a European auteur film, a U.S. "independent" film, and even a mainstream foreign-language film with subtitles might fall under the rubric of "art house films".
1.4. History 1980s–2000s
By the 1980s and 1990s, the term "art film" became conflated with "independent film" in the U.S., which shares many of the same stylistic traits. Companies such as Miramax Films distributed independent films that were deemed commercially viable. When major motion-picture studios noted the niche appeal of independent films, they created special divisions dedicated to non-mainstream fare, such as the Fox Searchlight Pictures division of Twentieth Century Fox, the Focus Features division of Universal, the Sony Pictures Classics division of Sony Pictures Entertainment, and the Paramount Vantage division of Paramount. Film critics have debated whether films from these divisions can be considered "independent films", given they have financial backing from major studios.
In 2007, Professor Camille Paglia argued in her article "Art movies: R.I.P." that ", art film, which was never just a matter of European cinema, increasingly became an actual world cinema - albeit one that struggled to gain wide recognition". Corman notes that, "Hollywood itself has expanded, radically, its aesthetic range. because the range of subjects at hand has expanded to include the very conditions of image-making, of movie production, of the new and prismatic media-mediated experience of modernity. Theres a new audience that has learned about art films at the video store." Corman states that "there is currently the possibility of a rebirth" of American art film.
2. Deviations from mainstream film norms
Film scholar David Bordwell outlined the academic definition of "art film" in a 1979 article entitled "The Art Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice", which contrasts art films with the mainstream films of classical Hollywood cinema. Mainstream Hollywood-style films use a clear narrative form to organize the film into a series of "causally related events taking place in space and time", with every scene driving towards a goal. The plot of mainstream films is driven by a well-defined protagonist, fleshed out with clear characters, and strengthened with "question-and-answer logic, problem-solving routines, genre, with its own distinct conventions". Film theorist Robert Stam also argues that "art film" is a film genre. He claims that a film is considered to be an art film based on artistic status in the same way film genres can be based on aspects of films such as their budgets blockbuster films or B-movies or their star performers Adam Sandler films.
3. Art film and film criticism
There are scholars who point out that mass market films such as those produced in Hollywood appeal to a less discerning audience. This group then turns to film critics as a cultural elite that can help steer them towards films that are more thoughtful and of a higher quality. To bridge the disconnect between popular taste and high culture, these film critics are expected to explain unfamiliar concepts and make them appealing to cultivate a more discerning movie-going public. For example, a film critic can help the audience - through his reviews - think seriously about films by providing the terms of analysis of these art films. Adopting an artistic framework of film analysis and review, these film critics provide viewers with a different way to appreciate what they are watching. So when controversial themes such as lesbianism or torture are shown, the public will not immediately dismiss or attack the movie where they are informed by critics of the films value such as how it depicts realism. Here, art theaters or art houses that exhibit art films are seen as "sites of cultural enlightenment" that draw critics and intellectual audiences alike. It serves as a place where these critics can experience culture and an artistic atmosphere where they can draw insights and material.
4. Timeline of notable films
The following list is a small, partial sample of films with "art film" qualities, compiled to give a general sense of what directors and films are considered to have "art film" characteristics. The films in this list demonstrate one or more of the characteristics of art films: a serious, non-commercial, or independently made film that is not aimed at a mass audience. Some of the films on this list are also considered to be "auteur" films, independent films, or experimental films. In some cases, critics disagree over whether a film is mainstream or not. For example, while some critics called Gus Van Sants My Own Private Idaho 1991 an "exercise in film experimentation" of "high artistic quality", The Washington Post called it an ambitious mainstream film. Some films on this list have most of these characteristics; other films are commercially made films, produced by mainstream studios, that nevertheless bear the hallmarks of a directors "auteur" style, or which have an experimental character. The films on this list are notable either because they won major awards or critical praise from influential film critics, or because they introduced an innovative narrative or film-making technique.
4.1. Timeline of notable films 1920s–1940s
In the 1920s and 1930s, filmmakers did not set out to make "art films", and film critics did not use the term "art film". However, there were films that had sophisticated aesthetic objectives, such as Carl Theodor Dreyers The Passion of Joan of Arc 1928 and Vampyr 1932, surrealist films such as Luis Buñuels Un chien andalou 1929 and LAge dOr 1930, or even films dealing with political and current-event relevance such as Sergei Eisensteins famed and influential masterpiece Battleship Potemkin. The U.S. film Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans 1927 by German Expressionist director F. W. Murnau uses distorted art design and groundbreaking cinematography to create an exaggerated, fairy-tale-like world rich with symbolism and imagery. Jean Renoirs film The Rules of the Game 1939 is a comedy of manners that transcends the conventions of its genre by creating a biting and tragic satire of French upper-class society in the years before WWII; a poll of critics from Sight & Sound ranked it as the fourth greatest film ever, placing it behind Vertigo, Citizen Kane and Tokyo Story.
Some of these early, artistically-oriented films were financed by wealthy individuals rather than film companies, particularly in cases where the content of the film was controversial or unlikely to attract an audience. In the late 1940s, UK director Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger made The Red Shoes 1948, a film about ballet, which stood out from mainstream-genre films of the era. In 1945, David Lean directed Brief Encounter, an adaptation of Noel Cowards play Still Life, which observes a passionate love affair between an upper-class man and a middle-class woman amidst the social and economic issues that Britain faced at the time.
4.2. Timeline of notable films 1950s
In the 1950s, some of the well-known films with artistic sensibilities include La Strada 1954, a film about a young woman who is forced to go to work for a cruel and inhumane circus performer in order to support her family, and eventually comes to terms with her situation; Carl Theodor Dreyers Ordet 1955, centering on a family with a lack of faith, but with a son who believes that he is Jesus Christ and convinced that he is capable of performing miracles; Federico Fellinis Nights of Cabiria 1957, which deals with a prostitutes failed attempts to find love, her suffering and rejection; Wild Strawberries 1957, by Ingmar Bergman, whose narrative concerns an elderly medical doctor, who is also a professor, whose nightmares lead him to re-evaluate his life; and The 400 Blows 1959 by François Truffaut, whose main character is a young man trying to come of age despite abuse from his parents, schoolteachers, and society. In Poland, the Khrushchev Thaw permitted some relaxation of the regimes cultural policies, and productions such as A Generation, Kanal, Ashes and Diamonds, Lotna 1954–1959, all directed by Andrzej Wajda, showed the Polish Film School style.
4.3. Timeline of notable films Asia
In India, there was an art-film movement in Bengali cinema known as "Parallel Cinema" or "Indian New Wave". This was an alternative to the mainstream commercial cinema known for its serious content, realism and naturalism, with a keen eye on the social-political climate of the times. This movement is distinct from mainstream Bollywood cinema and began around the same time as French and Japanese New Wave. The most influential filmmakers involved in this movement were Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen and Ritwik Ghatak. Some of the most internationally acclaimed films made in the period were The Apu Trilogy 1955–1959, a trio of films that tell the story of a poor country boys growth to adulthood, and Satyajit Rays Distant Thunder 1973, which tells the story of a farmer during a famine in Bengal. Other acclaimed Bengali filmmakers involved in this movement include Rituparno Ghosh, Aparna Sen and Goutam Ghose.
Japanese filmmakers produced a number of films that broke with convention. Akira Kurosawas Rashomon 1950, the first Japanese film to be widely screened in the West, depicts four witnesses contradictory accounts of a rape and murder. In 1952, Kurosawa directed Ikiru, a film about a Tokyo bureaucrat struggling to find a meaning for his life. Tokyo Story 1953, by Yasujirō Ozu, explores social changes of the era by telling the story of an aging couple who travel to Tokyo to visit their grown children, but find the children are too self-absorbed to spend much time with them. Seven Samurai 1954, by Kurosawa, tells the story of a farming village that hires seven master-less samurais to combat bandits. Fires on the Plain 1959, by Kon Ichikawa, explores the Japanese experience in World War II by depicting a sick Japanese soldier struggling to stay alive. Ugetsu 1953, by Kenji Mizoguchi, is a ghost story set in the late 16th century, which tells the story of peasants whose village is in the path of an advancing army. A year later, Mizoguchi directed Sansho the Bailiff 1954, which tells the story of two aristocratic children sold into slavery; in addition to dealing with serious themes such as the loss of freedom, the film features beautiful images and long, complicated shots.
4.4. Timeline of notable films 1960s
The 1960s was an important period in art film, with the release of a number of groundbreaking films giving rise to the European art cinema. Jean-Luc Godards À bout de souffle Breathless 1960 used innovative visual and editing techniques such as jump cuts and hand-held camera work. Godard, a leading figure of the French New Wave, would continue to make innovative films throughout the decade, proposing a whole new style of film-making. Following the success of Breathless, Goddard made two more very influential films, Contempt and Pierrot le fou, in 1963 and 1965 respectively. Jules et Jim, by François Truffaut, deconstructed a complex relationship of three individuals through innovative screenwriting, editing, and camera techniques. Italian director Michelangelo Antonioni helped revolutionize filmmaking with such films as La Notte 1961, a complex examination of a failed marriage that dealt with issues such as anomie and sterility; Eclipse 1962, about a young woman who is unable to form a solid relationship with her boyfriend because of his materialistic nature; Red Desert 1964, his first color film, which deals with the need to adapt to the modern world; and Blowup 1966, his first English-language film, which examines issues of perception and reality as it follows a young photographers attempt to discover whether he had photographed a murder.
Swedish director Ingmar Bergman began the 1960s with chamber pieces such as Winter Light 1963 and The Silence 1963, which deal with such themes as emotional isolation and a lack of communication. His films from the second half of the decade, such as Persona 1966, Shame 1968, and A Passion 1969, deal with the idea of film as an artifice. The intellectual and visually expressive films of Tadeusz Konwicki, such as All Souls Day Zaduszki, 1961 and Salto 1962, inspired discussions about war and raised existential questions on behalf of their everyman protagonists.
Federico Fellinis La Dolce Vita 1960 depicts a succession of nights and dawns in Rome as witnessed by a cynical journalist. In 1963, Fellini made 8½, an exploration of creative, marital and spiritual difficulties, filmed in black-and-white by cinematographer Gianni di Venanzo. The 1961 film Last Year at Marienbad by director Alain Resnais examines perception and reality, using grand tracking shots that became widely influential. Robert Bressons Au Hasard Balthazar 1966 and Mouchette 1967 are notable for their naturalistic, elliptical style. Spanish director Luis Buñuel also contributed heavily to the art of film with shocking, surrealist satires such as Viridiana 1961 and The Exterminating Angel 1962.
Russian director Andrei Tarkovskys film Andrei Rublev 1966 is a portrait of the medieval Russian icon painter of the same name. The film is also about artistic freedom and the possibility and necessity of making art for, and in the face of, a repressive authority. A cut version of the film was shown at the 1969 Cannes Film Festival, where it won the FIPRESCI prize. At the end of the decade, Stanley Kubricks 2001: A Space Odyssey 1968 wowed audiences with its scientific realism, pioneering use of special effects, and unusual visual imagery. In 1969, Andy Warhol released Blue Movie, the first adult art film depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the United States. According to Warhol, Blue Movie was a major influence in the making of Last Tango in Paris, an internationally controversial erotic art film, directed by Bernardo Bertolucci and released a few years after Blue Movie was made. In Soviet Armenia, Sergei Parajanovs The Color of Pomegranates, in which Georgian actress Sofiko Chiaureli plays five different characters, was banned by Soviet authorities, unavailable in the West for a long period, and praised by critic Mikhail Vartanov as "revolutionary"; and in the early 1980s, Les Cahiers du Cinema placed the film in its top 10 list. In 1967, in Soviet Georgia, influential Georgian film director Tengiz Abuladze directed Vedreba Entreaty, which was based on the motifs of Vaja-Pshavelas literary works, where story is told in a poetic narrative style, full of symbolic scenes with philosophical meanings. In Iran, Dariush Mehrjuis The Cow 1969, about a man who becomes insane after the death of his beloved cow, sparked the new wave of Iranian cinema.
4.5. Timeline of notable films 1970s
In the early 1970s, directors shocked audiences with violent films such as A Clockwork Orange 1971, Stanley Kubricks brutal exploration of futuristic youth gangs, and Last Tango in Paris 1972, Bernardo Bertoluccis taboo-breaking, sexually-explicit and controversial film. At the same time, other directors made more introspective films, such as Andrei Tarkovskys meditative science fiction film Solaris 1972, supposedly intended as a Soviet riposte to 2001. In 1975 and 1979 respectively, Tarkovsky directed two other films, which garnered critical acclaim overseas: The Mirror and Stalker. Terrence Malick, who directed Badlands 1973 and Days of Heaven 1978 shared many traits with Tarkovsky, such as his long, lingering shots of natural beauty, evocative imagery, and poetic narrative style.
Another feature of 1970s art films was the return to prominence of bizarre characters and imagery, which abound in the tormented, obsessed title character in German New Wave director Werner Herzogs Aguirre, the Wrath of God 1973, and in cult films such as Alejandro Jodorowskys psychedelic The Holy Mountain 1973 about a thief and an alchemist seeking the mythical Lotus Island. The film Taxi Driver 1976, by Martin Scorsese, continues the themes that A Clockwork Orange explored: an alienated population living in a violent, decaying society. The gritty violence and seething rage of Scorseses film contrasts other films released in the same period, such as David Lynchs dreamlike, surreal and industrial black and white classic Eraserhead 1977. In 1974, John Cassavetes offered a sharp commentary on American blue-collar life in A Woman Under the Influence, which features an eccentric housewife slowly descending into madness.
Also in the 1970s, Radley Metzger directed several adult art films, such as Barbara Broadcast 1977, which presented a surrealistic "Buñellian" atmosphere, and The Opening of Misty Beethoven 1976, based on the play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw and its derivative, My Fair Lady, which was considered, according to award-winning author Toni Bentley, to be the "crown jewel" of the Golden Age of Porn, an era in modern American culture that was inaugurated by the release of Andy Warhols Blue Movie 1969 and featured the phenomenon of "porno chic" in which adult erotic films began to obtain wide release, were publicly discussed by celebrities such as Johnny Carson and Bob Hope and taken seriously by film critics such as Roger Ebert.
4.6. Timeline of notable films 1980s
In 1980, director Martin Scorsese gave audiences, who had become used to the escapist blockbuster adventures of Steven Spielberg and George Lucas, the gritty, harsh realism of his film Raging Bull. In this film, actor Robert De Niro took method acting to an extreme to portray a boxers decline from a prizewinning young fighter to an overweight, "has-been" nightclub owner. Ridley Scotts Blade Runner 1982 could also be seen as a science fiction art film, along with 2001: A Space Odyssey 1968. Blade Runner explores themes of existentialism, or what it means to be human. A box-office failure, the film became popular on the arthouse circuit as a cult oddity after the release of a "directors cut" became successful via VHS home video. In the middle of the decade, Japanese director Akira Kurosawa used realism to portray the brutal, bloody violence of Japanese samurai warfare of the 16th century in Ran 1985. Ran followed the plot of King Lear, in which an elderly king is betrayed by his children. Sergio Leone also contrasted brutal violence with emotional substance in his epic tale of mobster life in Once Upon a Time in America.
Other directors in the 1980s chose a more intellectual path, exploring philosophical and ethical issues. Andrzej Wajdas Man of Iron 1981, a critique of the Polish communist government, won the 1981 Palme dOr at the Cannes Film Festival. Another Polish director, Krzysztof Kieslowski, made The Decalogue for television in 1988, a film series that explores ethical issues and moral puzzles. Two of these films were released theatrically as A Short Film About Love and A Short Film About Killing. In 1989, Woody Allen made, in the words of New York Times critic Vincent Canby, his most "securely serious and funny film to date", Crimes and Misdemeanors, which involves multiple stories of people who are trying to find moral and spiritual simplicity while facing dire issues and thoughts surrounding the choices they make. French director Louis Malle chose another moral path to explore with the dramatization of his real-life childhood experiences in Au revoir, les enfants, which depicts the occupying Nazi governments deportation of French Jews to concentration camps during World War II.
Another critically praised art film from this era, Wim Wenderss road movie Paris, Texas 1984, also won the Palme dOr.
Kieslowski was not the only director to transcend the distinction between the cinema and television. Ingmar Bergman made Fanny and Alexander 1982, which was shown on television in an extended five-hour version. In the United Kingdom, Channel 4, a new television channel, financed, in whole or in part, many films released theatrically through its Film 4 subsidiary. Wim Wenders offered another approach to life from a spiritual standpoint in his 1987 film Wings of Desire, a depiction of a "fallen angel" who lives among men, which won the Best Director Award at the Cannes Film Festival. In 1982, experimental director Godfrey Reggio released Koyaanisqatsi, a film without dialogue, which emphasizes cinematography and philosophical ideology. It consists primarily of slow motion and time-lapse cinematography of cities and natural landscapes, which results in a visual tone poem.
Another approach used by directors in the 1980s was to create bizarre, surreal alternative worlds. Martin Scorseses After Hours 1985 is a comedy-thriller that depicts a mans baffling adventures in a surreal nighttime world of chance encounters with mysterious characters. David Lynchs Blue Velvet 1986, a film noir-style thriller-mystery filled with symbolism and metaphors about polarized worlds and inhabited by distorted characters who are hidden in the seamy underworld of a small town, became surprisingly successful considering its highly disturbing subject matter. Peter Greenaways The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover 1989 is a fantasy/black comedy about cannibalism and extreme violence with an intellectual theme: a critique of "elite culture" in Thatcherian Britain.
According to Raphael Bassan, in his article The Angel: Un meteore dans le ciel de lanimation", Patrick Bokanowskis The Angel, shown at the 1982 Cannes Film Festival, can be considered the beginning of contemporary animation. The characters masks erase all human personality and give the impression of total control over the "matter" of the image and its optical composition, using distorted areas, obscure visions, metamorphoses, and synthetic objects.
4.7. Timeline of notable films 1990s
In the 1990s, directors took inspiration from the success of David Lynchs Blue Velvet 1986 and Peter Greenaways The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover 1989 and created films with bizarre alternative worlds and elements of surrealism. Japanese director Akira Kurosawas Dreams 1990 depicted his imaginative reveries in a series of vignettes that range from idyllic pastoral country landscapes to horrific visions of tormented demons and a blighted post-nuclear war landscape. The Coen brothers Barton Fink 1991, which won the Palme dOr at the Cannes Film Festival, features various literary allusions in an enigmatic story about a writer who encounters a range of bizarre characters, including an alcoholic, abusive novelist and a serial killer. Lost Highway 1997, from the same director as Blue Velvet, is a psychological thriller that explores fantasy worlds, bizarre time-space transformations, and mental breakdowns using surreal imagery.
Other directors in the 1990s explored philosophical issues and themes such as identity, chance, death, and existentialism. Gus Van Sants My Own Private Idaho 1991 and Wong Kar-wais Chungking Express 1994 explored the theme of identity. The former is an independent road movie/buddy film about two young street hustlers, which explores the theme of the search for home and identity. It was called a "high-water mark in 90s independent film", a "stark, poetic rumination", and an "exercise in film experimentation" of "high artistic quality". Chungking Express explores themes of identity, disconnection, loneliness, and isolation in the "metaphoric concrete jungle" of modern Hong Kong.
Daryush Shokofs film Seven Servants 1996 is an original high art cinema piece about a man who strives to "unite" the worlds races until his last breath. One year after Seven Servants, Abbas Kiarostamis film Taste of Cherry 1997, which won the Palme dOr at the Cannes Film Festival, tells a similar tale with a different twist; both films are about a man trying to hire a person to bury him after he commits suicide. Seven Servants was shot in a minimalist style, with long takes, a leisurely pace, and long periods of silence. The film is also notable for its use of long shots and overhead shots to create a sense of distance between the audience and the characters. Zhang Yimous early 1990s works such as Ju Dou 1990, Raise the Red Lantern 1991, The Story of Qiu Ju 1992 and To Live 1994 explore human emotions through poignant narratives. To Live won the Grand Jury Prize.
Several 1990s films explored existentialist-oriented themes related to life, chance, and death. Robert Altmans Short Cuts 1993 explores themes of chance, death, and infidelity by tracing 10 parallel and interwoven stories. The film, which won the Golden Lion and the Volpi Cup at the Venice Film Festival, was called a "many-sided, many mooded, dazzlingly structured eclectic jazz mural" by Chicago Tribune critic Michael Wilmington. Krzysztof Kieslowskis The Double Life of Veronique 1991 is a drama about the theme of identity and a political allegory about the East/West split in Europe; the film features stylized cinematography, an ethereal atmosphere, and unexplained supernatural elements.
Darren Aronofskys film Pi 1998 is an "incredibly complex and ambiguous film filled with both incredible style and substance" about a paranoid mathematicians "search for peace". The film creates a David Lynch-inspired "eerie Eraserhead -like world" shot in "black-and-white, which lends a dream-like atmosphere to all of the proceedings" and explores issues such as "metaphysics and spirituality". Matthew Barneys The Cremaster Cycle 1994–2002 is a cycle of five symbolic, allegorical films that creates a self-enclosed aesthetic system, aimed to explore the process of creation. The films are filled with allusions to reproductive organs and sexual development, and use narrative models drawn from biography, mythology, and geology.
In 1997, Terrence Malick returned from a 20-year absence with The Thin Red Line, a war film that uses poetry and nature to stand apart from typical war movies. It was nominated for seven Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director.
Some 1990s films mix an ethereal or surreal visual atmosphere with the exploration of philosophical issues. Satantango 1994, by the Hungarian director Bela Tarr, is a 7 1 ⁄ 2 -hour-long film, shot in black and white, that deals with Tarrs favorite theme, inadequacy, as con man Irimias comes back to a village at an unspecified location in Hungary, presenting himself as a leader and Messiah figure to the gullible villagers. Kieslowskis Three Colors trilogy 1993–4, particularly Blue 1993 and Red 1994, deal with human relationships and how people cope with them in their day-to-day lives. The trilogy of films was called "explorations of spirituality and existentialism" that created a "truly transcendent experience". The Guardian listed Breaking the Waves 1996 as one of its top 25 arthouse films. The reviewer stated that "ll the ingredients that have come to define Lars von Triers career and in turn, much of modern European cinema are present here: high-wire acting, innovative visual techniques, a suffering heroine, issue-grappling drama, and a galvanising shot of controversy to make the whole thing unmissable".
4.8. Timeline of notable films 2000s
A number of films from the 2000s with art film qualities were notable for their use of innovative filmmaking or editing techniques. Memento 2001, a psychological thriller directed by Christopher Nolan, is about a man suffering from short-term memory loss. The film is edited so that the plot is revealed backwards in ten-minute chunks, simulating the condition of memory loss. Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind 2004 is a romance film directed by Michel Gondry about a man who hires a company to erase the memory of a bad relationship. The film uses a range of special effects techniques and camera work to depict the destruction of the mans memories and his transitions from one memory to another.
Timecode 2000, a film directed by Mike Figgis, uses a split screen to show four continuous 90-minute takes that follow four storylines. Russian Ark 2002, a film directed by Alexander Sokurov, took Figgis use of extended takes even further; it is notable for being the first feature film shot in a single, unedited take. Waking Life 2001, an animated film directed by Richard Linklater, uses an innovative digital rotoscope technique to depict a young man stuck in a dream.
Several 2000s-era films explored the theme of amnesia or memory, but unlike Memento, they did so through the use of narrative techniques rather than filmmaking and editing methods. Mulholland Drive 2001, directed by David Lynch, is initially about a young woman who moves to Hollywood and discovers that an amnesiac is living in her house; as the plot progresses, it becomes apparent that the film is holding something deeper in terms of its plot and characters. Oldboy 2003, directed by Park Chan-wook, is about a man imprisoned by a mysterious and brutal captor for 15 years. After his abrupt release, he must then chase his old memories. Peppermint Candy 2000, directed by Lee Chang-dong, starts with the suicide of the male protagonist, and then uses reverse chronology similar to Memento to depict the events of the last 20 years, which led the man to want to kill himself.
Some notable films from the 2000s are considered to possess art film qualities yet differed from mainstream films due to controversial subject matter or narrative form. For example, Gus Van Sants film Elephant 2003, which depicts mass murder at a high school and echoes the Columbine High School massacre, won top prize at the Cannes Film Festival. Other films of his include Gerry, Last Days, and Paranoid Park. Todd Haynes complex deconstruction of Bob Dylans persona, Im Not There 2007, tells its story using non-traditional narrative techniques, intercutting the storylines of the six different Dylan-inspired characters. Mexican director Guillermo del Toros film Pans Labyrinth uses computer-generated imagery CGI to create a fantastical world, imagined by a ten-year-old girl to block out the horror of the Spanish Civil War. Jonas Cuarons Year of the Nail 2007 uses unstaged photographs taken by the director of his friends and family, shown in a specific order and combined with voice acting to tell a fictional story.
Lewis Beale of Film Journal International stated that Australian director Andrew Dominiks western film The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford 2007 is "a fascinating, literary-based work that succeeds as both art and genre film". Unlike the action-oriented Jesse James films of the past, Dominiks unconventional epic perhaps more accurately details the outlaws relinquishing psyche during the final months of his life as he succumbs to the paranoia of being captured and develops a precarious friendship with his eventual assassin, Robert Ford. In 2009, director Paul Thomas Anderson claimed that his 2002 film Punch-Drunk Love about a shy, repressed rage-aholic was "an art house Adam Sandler film", a reference to the unlikely inclusion of "frat boy" comic Sandler in the film; critic Roger Ebert claims that Punch Drunk Love "may be the key to all of the Adam Sandler films, and may liberate Sandler for a new direction in his work. He cant go on making those moronic comedies forever, can he? Who would have guessed he had such uncharted depths?"
4.9. Timeline of notable films 2010s
The CNN review of Thai director Apichatpong Weerasethakuls Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives 2010 called it "an art film for everyone", unlike his earlier films, which were "considered inaccessible art house fare". This film, which won the 2010 Cannes Palme dOr, "ties together what might just be a series of beautifully shot scenes with moving and funny musings on the nature of death and reincarnation, love, loss, and karma". Weerasethakul is an independent film director, screenwriter, and film producer, who works outside the strict confines of the Thai film studio system. His films deal with dreams, nature, sexuality, including his own homosexuality, and Western perceptions of Thailand and Asia. Weerasethakuls films display a preference for unconventional narrative structures such as placing titles/credits at the middle of a film and for working with non-actors.
Terrence Malicks The Tree of Life 2011 was released after decades of development and won the Palme dOr at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival; it was highly praised by critics. At the Avon Theater in Stamford, Connecticut, a message was posted about the theaters no-refund policy due to "some customer feedback and a polarized audience response" to the film. The theater stated that it "stands behind this ambitious work of art and other challenging films". Drive 2011, directed by Nicolas Winding Refn, is commonly called an arthouse action film. Also in 2011, director Lars von Trier released Melancholia, a movie dealing with depression and other mental disorders while also showing a familys reaction to an approaching planet that could collide with the Earth. The movie was well received, some claiming it to be Von Triers masterpiece with others highlighting Kirsten Dunsts performance, the visuals, and realism depicted in the movie.
Jonathan Glazers Under the Skin was screened at the 2013 Venice Film Festival and received a theatrical release through indie studio A24 the following year. The film, starring Scarlett Johansson, follows an alien in human form as she travels around Glasgow, picking up unwary men for sex, harvesting their flesh and stripping them of their humanity. Dealing with themes such as sexuality, humanity, and objectification, the film received positive reviews and was hailed by some as a masterpiece; critic Richard Roeper described the film as "what we talk about when we talk about film as art".
This decade also saw a re-emergence of "art horror" with the success of films like Black Swan 2010, Stoker 2013, Enemy 2013, The Babadook 2014, Only Lovers Left Alive 2014, A Girl Walks Home Alone at Night 2014, Goodnight Mommy 2014, It Follows 2015, The Witch 2015, The Wailing 2016, Split 2016, Get Out 2017, Mother! 2017, Annihilation 2018, A Quiet Place 2018, Hereditary 2018, Suspiria 2018, The Nightingale 2018, The House That Jack Built 2018, Us 2019, Midsommar 2019, The Lighthouse 2019 and Parasite 2019.
Roma 2018, is a film by Alfonso Cuaron inspired by his childhood living in 1970s Mexico. Shot in black-and-white, it deals with themes shared with Cuarons past films, such as mortality and class. The film was distributed through Netflix, earning the streaming giant their first Academy Award nomination for Best Picture.
The Last Faust is a 2019 feature film written and directed by the German artist Philipp Humm. Set in 2059, it is a contemporary interpretation of Johann Wolfgang von Goethes Faust and the first film directly based on both parts of the tragedy. It stars English actors Steven Berkoff Dr. Goodfellow and, Martin Hancock Faust. Music based on Richard Wagner with tracks from Swiss electronic music duo Yello.
5. Controversy and criticism
Criticisms of art films include accusations of being pornographic and being too pretentious and self-indulgent for mainstream audiences.
A famous example: Andy Warhols 1964 experimental film Empire being shown at slower than regular sound speed 16 per frames as opposed to 24.
Other recent examples include Mother! and the films of Lars von Trier.
6.1. Related concepts Artistic television
Quality artistic television, a television genre or style which shares some of the same traits as art films, has been identified. Television shows, such as David Lynchs Twin Peaks and the BBCs The Singing Detective, also have "a loosening of causality, a greater emphasis on psychological or anecdotal realism, violations of classical clarity of space and time, explicit authorial comment, and ambiguity".
As with much of Lynchs other work notably the film Blue Velvet, Twin Peaks explores the gulf between the veneer of small-town respectability and the seedier layers of life lurking beneath its surface. The show is difficult to place in a defined television genre; stylistically, it borrows the unsettling tone and supernatural premises of horror films and simultaneously offers a bizarrely comical parody of American soap operas with a campy, melodramatic presentation of the morally dubious activities of its quirky characters. The show represents an earnest moral inquiry distinguished by both weird humor and a deep vein of surrealism, incorporating highly stylized vignettes, surrealist and often inaccessible artistic images alongside the otherwise comprehensible narrative of events.
Charlie Brookers UK-focused Black Mirror television series explores the dark and sometimes satirical themes in modern society, particularly with regard to the unanticipated consequences of new technologies; while classified as "speculative fiction", rather than art television, it received rave reviews. HBOs The Wire might also qualify as "artistic television", as it has garnered a greater amount of critical attention from academics than most television shows receive. For example, the film theory journal Film Quarterly has featured the show on its cover.
6.2. Related concepts Examples of arthouse animated films
- Renaissance 2006
- Belladonna of Sadness 1973
- Tales from Earthsea 2007
- Paprika 2006
- Waking Life 2001
- In This Corner of the World 2016
- Loving Vincent 2017
- Fantastic Planet 1973
- Bombay Rose 2019
- A Scanner Darkly 2006
- Seoul Station 2016
- The Red Turtle 2016
- Everything Will Be OK 2006
- Song of the Sea 2014
- My Life as a Zucchini 2016
6.3. Related concepts Notable arthouse animators
- Don Hertzfeldt
- Rene Laloux
- Tomm Moore
- Michael Dudok De Wit
- Richard Linklater
- Satoshi Kon
7. In popular media
Art films have been part of popular culture from animated sitcoms like The Simpsons and Clone High spoofing and satirizing them to even the comedic film review webseries Brows Held High hosted by Kyle Kallgren.