ⓘ Notochord homeobox (NOTO) gene

                                     

ⓘ Notochord homeobox (NOTO) gene

Homeobox protein notochord is a transcription factor encoded by the gene notochord homeobox located on the short arm of chromosome 2 in humans. An ortholog of NOTO is found in the house mouse, among other species, as the gene notochord homeobox located on chromosome 6, which encodes the homologous transcription factor homeobox protein notochord.

In the house mouse, Noto is expressed in the cells forming the primitive node of the developing embryo and functions determine the form of primitive node, helping to develop the lateral left-right asymmetry of the embryo, and form cilia mainly on the back of nodal cells. Noto is also essential for the proper development of the caudal notochord. Noto acts on the output of genes gene foxa2 and T, and its expression is absent in embryos mutant forms of the gene foxa2 and T. However, a direct relation to the regulation of Noto expression of the gene foxa2 and T, has not yet been confirmed. In contrast, Noto stands in front of Foxj1 and Rfx3, both functions in the ciliogenesis of some other tissues of the mouse.

The mouse embryos with mutant forms of Noto is characterized by shortened nodal cilia, basal bodies are deeply embedded in the cytoplasm of the cells and / or abnormally developed tail chord complete absence in some cases. In one experiment, replacing Noto with Foxj1 in the result of the functional components of cilia, but only with Noto expression was localized to the cilia on the rear hub cells and the normal form of an installed node. In addition, Noto mutant embryos undergo randomization lateral asymmetry and therefore are often characterized by isomerization of the lungs, heart defect outflow tract, heterotaxia, and / or situs inversus.