ⓘ Automotive industry in India

                                     

ⓘ Automotive industry in India

As of 2019, India is the 4th largest automobile market in the world, surpassing Germany in terms of sales.

                                     

1. Manufacturing facilities

The majority of Indias car manufacturing industry is evenly divided into three "clusters". Around Chennai is the southernmost and largest, with a 35% revenue share, accounting for 60% of the countrys automotive exports, and home of the operations of Heavy Vehicles Factory, Engine Factory Avadi, Ford, Hyundai, Renault, Mitsubishi, Nissan, BMW, Hindustan Motors, Daimler, Caparo, Mini, and Datsun.

Near Mumbai, Maharashtra, along the Chakan corridor near Pune, is the western cluster, with a 33% share of the market. Audi, Volkswagen, and Skoda are located in Aurangabad. Mahindra and Mahindra has an SUV and engine assembly plant at Nashik. General Motors, Tata Motors, Mercedes Benz, Land Rover, Jaguar, Fiat, and Force Motors have assembly plants in the area.

The northern cluster is around the National Capital Region, and contributes 32%. Gurgaon and Manesar, in Haryana, are where the countrys largest car manufacturer, Maruti Suzuki, is based.

An emerging cluster is the state of Gujarat, with a manufacturing facility of MG Motors, Atul Auto in Rajkot, Ford, Maruti Suzuki, and Peugeot-Citroen plants are also planned for Gujarat.

Kolkata with Hindustan Motors inactive, Noida with Honda, and Bengaluru with Toyota, Volvo and Scania and Andhra with Isuzu and Kia are other automotive manufacturing regions around the country.

                                     

1.1. Manufacturing facilities Gujarat

Passenger vehicles
  • Chevrolet Sales India Private Limited Closed – Halol
  • General Motors India Private Limited Closed
  • Ford India – Sanand.
  • Tata Motors – Sanand
  • MG Motor – Halol
  • Atul Auto – Rajkot
  • Maruti Suzuki – Ahmedabad
Commercial vehicles
  • Asia Motor Works AMW – Bhuj
                                     

1.2. Manufacturing facilities Haryana

Two wheelers
  • Suzuki – Gurugram
  • Hero MotoCorp – Dharuhera, Gurgaon
  • Harley-Davidson India, Bawal
  • Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India – Manesar
  • India Yamaha Motor – Faridabad
Passenger vehicles
  • Maruti Suzuki – Gurugram, Manesar
Commercial vehicles
  • JCB India – Faridabad

Agricultural Vehicles

  • Escorts Group-Faridabad
                                     

1.3. Manufacturing facilities Himachal Pradesh

Two wheelers
  • TVS Motor – Nalagarh
Passenger vehicles
  • ICML motors – Amb
Commercial vehicles
  • TAFE Tractors – Parwanoo
                                     

1.4. Manufacturing facilities Karnataka

Two wheelers
  • Ather Energy – Whitefield
  • TVS Motor – Mysuru
  • Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Pvt. Ltd. - Narsapura
Passenger vehicles
  • Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles – Bengaluru
  • Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Limited – Bidadi
Commercial vehicles
  • Scania Commercial Vehicles India Private Limited – Bengaluru
  • Tata Motors – Dharwad
  • Volvo India
  • Volvo Trucks India – Hosakote
  • Bharat Earth Movers - Mysuru
  • TAFE Tractors – Doddaballapur
  • Volvo Construction Equipment India – Hosakote
  • Volvo Buses India – Hosakote
  • Bharat Earth Movers - Bengaluru
                                     

1.5. Manufacturing facilities Kerala

Commercial vehicles
  • Kerala Automobiles Limited
  • Bharat Earth Movers Defense Products - produces Tatra Trucks 12x12, 10x10.8x8, 6x6, 4x4, and variants


                                     

1.6. Manufacturing facilities Madhya Pradesh

Two wheelers
  • Mahindra & Mahindra – Pithampur
Commercial vehicles
  • Eicher Motors – Pithampur
  • CASE Construction Equipment - Pithampur
  • TAFE Tractors – Mandideep
  • John Deere Tractors – Dewas
  • Force Motors Private Limited – Pithampur
  • Vehicle Factory Jabalpur, Jabalpur
  • Hindustan Motors – Pithampur
                                     

1.7. Manufacturing facilities Maharashtra

Two wheelers
  • DSK Hysoung - Wai
  • Kinetic Engineering – Pune
  • India Kawasaki Motors – Chakan Pune
  • Bajaj Auto – Chakan Pune & Waluj, Aurangabad
  • KTM Sportmotorcycles – Chakan Pune
  • Vespa Scooters – Baramati Pune
Passenger vehicles
  • Jaguar Cars – Pimpri Chinchwad Pune
  • Ssangyong Motor Company – Chakan Pune
  • Tata Motors – Pimpri Chinchwad Pune
  • Tata Motors Limited
  • Land Rover - Pimpri Chinchwad, Pune.
  • Mahindra & Mahindra Automotive Division – Nashik, Chakan Pune
  • Fiat Automobiles – Ranjangaon Pune
  • Volkswagen – Chakan Pune
  • General Motors India – Talegaon Pune
  • Mercedes-Benz Passenger Cars – Chakan Pune
  • Audi AG – Shendra, Aurangabad
  • Skoda Auto - Chakan Pune,
  • Skoda Auto – Shendra, Aurangabad
  • Jeep India – Ranjangaon Pune
  • Volkswagen Group Sales India Private Limited Pune
  • Premier Automobiles Limited – Pimpri Chinchwad Pune
  • Chinkara Motors – Karlekhind, Alibag
Commercial vehicles
  • Ashok Leyland – Bhandara
  • Terex – Khed Pune.
  • Bajaj Auto Pune – Waluj, Aurangabad
  • MAN Trucks India – Akurdi Pune
  • Hyundai Construction Equipment – Chakan Pune.
  • Force Motors – Chakan Pune
  • Mahindra Navistar – Chakan, Pune
  • Premier Automobiles Limited – Pimpri Chinchwad Pune
  • Caterpillar - Banda, Sindhudurg.
  • John Deere Tractors – Sanaswadi Pune.
  • Piaggio Vehicles – Baramati Pune
  • Sany India – Pune.
  • Eicher VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd. – Thane.


                                     

1.8. Manufacturing facilities Punjab

Commercial vehicles
  • SML Isuzu Limited – Nawanshahar originally a Swaraj Mazda plant.
  • Sonalika Tractor Pvt Ltd, Hoshiarpur.
  • Swaraj Tractors, Mohali.
  • Preet Tractor, Nabha.
  • Standard Tractors, Barnala.
                                     

1.9. Manufacturing facilities Rajasthan

Two Wheelers

Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India – TapukaraHero Motocorp;Neemrana

Passenger vehicles
  • Honda Cars India Ltd. – Tapukara
Commercial vehicles
  • Ashok Leyland – Alwar
  • TAFE Tractors – Alwar
                                     

1.10. Manufacturing facilities Tamil Nadu

Two wheelers
  • India Yamaha Motor – Oragadam, Chennai
  • Royal Enfield – Chennai
  • TVS Motor – Hosur
Passenger vehicles
  • Ford India Private Limited – Maraimalai Nagar, Chennai
  • BMW India – Mahindra World City, New Chennai
  • Hyundai Motor India Limited – Sriperumbudur, Chennai
  • Mitsubishi – Tiruvallur, Chennai
  • Renault India Private Limited – Oragadam, Chennai
  • Renault Nissan Automotive India Private Limited
  • Nissan Motor India Private Limited – Oragadam, Chennai
Commercial vehicles
  • Hosur – three adjacent plants for trucks, special vehicles and power units.
  • Ennore, Chennai – trucks, buses, engines, axles etc.
  • Engine Factory Avadi, Avadi, Chennai
  • Sengadu Village, Kanchipuram – technical and production facility for Ashok Leyland Defence Systems
  • Ashok Leyland Limited
  • Heavy Vehicles Factory, Avadi, Chennai
  • Kamaz Vectra Motors – Hosur
  • TVS Motor – Hosur
  • BharatBenz – Oragadam, Chennai
  • SAME Deutz-Fahr Tractors – Ranipet, Vellore
  • TAFE Tractors – Chennai


                                     

1.11. Manufacturing facilities Telangana

Defence
  • Ordnance Factory Medak, Medak
Commercial vehicles
  • Mahindra and Mahindra, Zaheerabad
  • Deccan auto Limited, Patancheru


                                     

1.12. Manufacturing facilities Uttar Pradesh

Two wheelers
  • India Yamaha Motor – Greater Noida
  • LML – Kanpur
Passenger vehicles
  • J.S. Auto P LTD. – Kanpur
  • Honda Cars India Ltd. – Greater Noida
Commercial vehicles
  • Tata Motors – Lucknow
  • New Holland – Greater Noida
                                     

1.13. Manufacturing facilities Uttarakhand

Commercial vehicles
  • Mahindra & Mahindra – Haridwar
  • Ashok Leyland – Pantnagar
  • Tata Motors – Pantnagar
Two wheelers
  • Hero MotoCorp – Haridwar
  • Bajaj Auto – Pantnagar
                                     

1.14. Manufacturing facilities West Bengal

Passenger vehicles
  • Hindustan Motors Limited – Kolkata Inactive
Commercial vehicles
  • Tata Hitachi Construction Machinery – Kharagpur
                                     

2. Exports

Indias automobile exports have grown consistently and reached $4.5 billion in 2009, with the United Kingdom being Indias largest export market, followed by Italy, Germany, Netherlands, and South Africa.

According to The New York Times, Indias strong engineering base and expertise in the manufacturing of low-cost, fuel-efficient cars has resulted in the expansion of manufacturing facilities of several automobile companies like Hyundai, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen, and Maruti Suzuki.

In 2008, South Korean multinational Hyundai Motors alone exported 240.000 cars made in India. Nissan Motors planned to export 250.000 vehicles manufactured in its India plant by 2011. Similarly, US automobile company, General Motors had announced its plans to export about 50.000 cars manufactured in India by 2011.

In September 2009, Ford Motors announced its plans to set up a plant in India with an annual capacity of 250.000 cars, for US$500 million. The cars were manufactured both for the Indian market and for export. The company said that the plant was a part of its plan to make India the hub for its global production business. Fiat Motors had announced that it would source more than US$1 billion worth auto components from India.

In 2009 India 0.23m surpassed China 0.16m as Asias fourth largest exporter of cars after Japan 1.77m, Korea 1.12m and Thailand 0.26m.

In July 2010, The Economic Times reported that PSA Peugeot Citroen was planning to re-enter the Indian market and open a production plant in Andhra Pradesh that would have an annual capacity of 100.000 vehicles, investing € 700M in the operation. PSAs intention to utilise this production facility for export purposes however remains unclear as of December 2010.

In recent years, India has emerged as a leading center for the manufacture of small cars. Hyundai, the biggest exporter from the country, now ships more than 250.000 cars annually from India. Apart from Maruti Exports shipments to Suzukis other markets, Maruti Suzuki also manufactures small cars for Nissan, which sells them in Europe. Nissan will also export small cars from its new Indian assembly line. Tata Motors exports its passenger vehicles to Asian and African markets, and is preparing to sell electric cars in Europe in 2010. The firm is planning to sell an electric version of its affordable car the Tata Nano in Europe and in the U.S. In the 2000s, Mahindra & Mahindra prepared to introduce its pickup trucks and small SUV models in the U.S. market, but canceled its plans. As of 2019, it is assembling and selling an off-road vehicle Mahindra Roxor; not certified for road use in limited numbers in the U.S. It is also sold in Canada. Bajaj Auto is designing a low-cost car for Renault Nissan Automotive India, which will market the product worldwide. Renault Nissan may also join domestic commercial vehicle manufacturer Ashok Leyland in another small car project. While the possibilities for the Indian automobile industry are impressive, there are challenges that could thwart future growth. Since the demand for automobiles in recent years is directly linked to overall economic expansion and rising personal incomes, industry growth will slow if the economy weakens.



                                     

2.1. Exports Top 10 export destinations

India exported $14.5 billion worth of automobiles in 2014. The 10 countries below imported 47.8% of that total.

                                     

3. Passenger vehicles in India

India is the 4th largest passenger vehicle producer in the world. In 2018-19, it produced 4.06 million Cars. Currently, there an estimated 30 million cars in India.

This list is of cars that are officially available and serviced in India. While other cars can be imported to the country at a steep 105% import duty, car-makers such as Alfa Romeo, McLaren, Pagani, Cadillac, SSC, Zenvo, SEAT, Smart, Daihatsu, Infiniti, Acura, Spyker, Lotus, Ariel, Caterham, Peugeot-Citroen, Mazda, GAZ, and Proton are in various stages of official introduction into the Indian automobile industry.

                                     

3.1. Passenger vehicles in India Models currently manufactured by Indian companies

  • Tata Motors: Nano, Sumo, Movus, Venture, Safari, Xenon, Zest, Bolt, Tiago, Tigor, Hexa, Nexon, Harrier, Altroz
  • ICML: Rhino Rx
  • Mahindra:Bolero, Scorpio, Thar, Quanto, Verito, Verito Vibe, Genio, XUV500, e2o, TUV300, KUV100, NuvoSport, Marazzo.
  • Premier Automobiles Limited: Sigma, RiO
  • San Motors: Storm
  • Hradyesh:Morris Street
  • Hindustan Motors: Ambassador
  • Force Motors earlier known as Tempo: One
  • Maruti Suzuki subsidiary of Japanese auto maker Suzuki Alto K10, Alto 800, WagonR, Swift, DZire, Eeco, Ertiga, Celerio, Ciaz, Vitara Brezza, Baleno, Ignis, S-Cross, XL6, S-Presso.
                                     

3.2. Passenger vehicles in India Defunct Indian automotive companies

  • Sipani Automobiles
  • Standard Motor Products of India
                                     

3.3. Passenger vehicles in India Vehicles currently manufactured in India

  • Hyundai Motor India: Santro, Grand i10, Grand i10 Nios, Elite i20, Xcent, Aura, Verna, Elantra, Creta, Tucson, Venue.
  • Ford India: Figo, Figo Aspire, Freestyle, Ecosport, Endeavour.
  • MINI: Countryman.
  • Isuzu: MU-7, V-Cross.
  • Honda Cars India Limited: Jazz, Amaze, BR-V, City, WR-V, Civic, CR-V.
  • Jeep: Compass.
  • BMW India: 1 Series, 3 Series, 3 Series GT, 5 Series, 7 Series, X1, X3, X4, X5.
  • Mitsubishi in collaboration with Hindustan Motors: Outlander
  • Volkswagen India: Polo, Vento, Ameo, Tiguan, Passat.
  • Audi India: A3, A4, A6, A8, Q3, Q5, Q7.
  • Jaguar subsidiary of Tata Motors: XE, XF, XJ.
  • Kia: Carnival, Seltos.
  • MG: Hector, ZS EV.
  • Fiat India: Punto, Linea, Avventura, Urban Cross.
  • Datsun: Go, Go+, Redi-Go
  • Skoda Auto India: Rapid, Octavia, Superb, Kodiaq.
  • Nissan Motor India: Micra, Sunny, Terrano, Kicks.
  • Mercedes-Benz India: A-Class, C-Class, E-Class, GLA-Class, GLE-Class, GLC-Class, S-Class.
  • Toyota Kirloskar: Etios Liva, Etios, Corolla Altis, Innova Crysta, Fortuner, Camry, Yaris, Glanza.
  • Renault India: Captur, Duster, Kwid, Lodgy, Triber.
  • Land Rover subsidiary of Tata Motors: Discovery Sport, Range Rover Evoque, Range Rover Velar.

Opel was present in India until 2006. As of 2013, Opel only provides spare parts and vehicle servicing to existing Opel vehicle owners.

General Motors India stopped producing passenger cars for the Indian market in late 2017. It however continues to produce vehicles for export to other markets.

                                     

3.4. Passenger vehicles in India Vehicles currently imported into India

  • Ford: Mustang.
  • Bugatti: Veyron.
  • Audi: A8 L, A7, A5, TT, RS 6 Avant, R8.
  • Fiat: Abarth 595 Competizone
  • Ferrari: California, 458 Italia, F12, FF, 812 Superfast, 488 Pista, Portofino, GTC4Lusso.
  • Gumpert: Apollo.
  • Honda: Accord Hybrid.
  • General Motors: Hummer H2, Hummer H3.
  • Bentley: Arnage, Azure, Brooklands, Continental GT, Continental Flying Spur, Mulsanne.
  • Aston Martin: Vantage, Vanquish, Rapide, Virage, DB9, DBS, One-77.
  • BMW: 5 Series GT, 6 Series, 7 Series, X5 M, X6, X6 M, M3, M5, M6 and Z4.
  • Land Rover Subsidiary of Tata Motors: Discovery 4, Range Rover Sport, Range Rover.
  • MINI: Cooper, Cooper S, Convertible.
  • Mercedes-Benz: Viano.
  • Jaguar Subsidiary of Tata Motors: XK, F-Type
  • Mitsubishi: Montero.
  • Maserati: Quattroporte, Ghibli.
  • Koenigsegg: CCX, CCXR, Agera no unit sold in India.
  • Lamborghini: Huracan, Aventador, Urus.
  • Nissan:GT-R.
  • Volkswagen: Beetle.
  • SsangYong subsidiary of Mahindra & Mahindra: Rexton.
  • Volvo subsidiary of Geely, China: V40, V90, S60, S90, XC60, XC90.
  • Rolls Royce: Ghost, Wraith, Phantom, Phantom Coupe, Phantom Drophead Coupe, Cullinan.
  • Porsche: 997, Boxster, Panamera, Cayman, Cayenne, Carrera GT, Macan.
  • Toyota: Land Cruiser, Land Cruiser Prado, Prius.
                                     

4.1. Commercial vehicle manufacturers in India Indian brands

  • Bajaj Auto
  • Atul Auto
  • Tata Motors
  • Hero Motocorp
  • TVS Motor Company
  • Hindustan Motors
  • AMW
  • Mahindra & Mahindra
  • Force
  • Premier
  • Eicher Motors
                                     

4.2. Commercial vehicle manufacturers in India Joint-venture JV brands

  • Ashok Leyland - originally a JV between Ashok Motors owned by the Hinduja Group and Leyland Motors, now joint ventures between Ashok Leyland and Nissan Motors Japan for LCVs; and John Deere USA for construction equipment.
  • KaMAZ Vectra - A JV between Russias KaMAZ and the Vectra Group
  • VE Commercial Vehicles Limited - VE Commercial Vehicles limited - A JV between Volvo Group and Eicher Motors Limited.
  • SML Isuzu - originally, as Swaraj Mazda, a JV between Punjab Tractors and Mazda, now 53.5% owned by Sumitomo Group and with its current name since 2011.
  • Maruti Suzuki - A joint venture of Indian Maruti and Japanese Suzuki.
  • MAN Force - A JV between Force Motors and MAN AG Germany
  • Tatra Vectra Motors Ltd - defunct Initial truck partnership with India by Vectra. Replaced by Kamaz. Tatra trucks for sale in India are now manufactured in collaboration with Bharat Earth Movers Limited.
                                     

4.3. Commercial vehicle manufacturers in India Foreign-owned brands

  • Caterpillar Inc.
  • Mercedes-Benz - manufactures luxury coaches in India.
  • Hino
  • MAN
  • Scania
  • Tatra.
  • Piaggio
  • BharatBenz Owned by Daimler AG of Germany and affiliated with Daimlers Fuso and Mercedes-Benz brands
  • Iveco
  • Rosenbauer.
  • Volvo.
  • J. C. Bamford JCB Owned by British multinational corporation J. C. Bamford.
  • Isuzu
  • DAF
                                     

4.4. Commercial vehicle manufacturers in India Electric vehicle manufacturers in India

  • Hyundai
  • Bajaj Auto
  • Mahindra
  • Hero Electric
  • Ather Energy
  • Ajanta Group.
  • Reva, now Mahindra Reva Electric Vehicles.
  • MG Motor
  • TVS Motor Company
  • Tata Motors
  • Tara International


                                     

5. Driverless Technology in India

While there is controversy on possibility of driverless cars in India, many startups are working on this technology:

  • Hi Tech Robotic Systemz
  • EC Mobility Pvt. Ltd.
  • SeDrica 1.0
  • Flux Auto
  • Swaayat Robots
  • Netradyne
  • FishEyeBox
  • Auro Robotics
  • ATImotors
  • OmniPresent Robotics

In Auto Expo 2018, Hi Tech Robotic Systemz launched an artificial intelligence-based driver behaviour sensor technology called Novus Aware in partnership with Daimler India Commercial Vehicles DICV.

                                     

6. Defunct motor vehicle manufacturers of India

  • Mopeds India Limited - produces the Suvega range of Mopeds under technical collaboration with Motobecane of France.
  • Kinetic Honda - a joint venture between Kinetic Engineering Limited, India and Honda Motor Company, Japan. The joint venture operated during 1984 - 1998, manufacturing 2-stroke scooters in India. In 1998, the joint venture was terminated after which Kinetic Engineering continued to sell the models under the brand name Kinetic until 2008 when the interests were sold to Mahindra.
  • Standard - produced by Standard Motor Products in Madras from 1949 to 1988. Indian Standards were variations of vehicles made in the U.K. by Standard-Triumph.Standard Motor Products of India Ltd. SMPI was incorporated in 1948, and their first product was the Vanguard, which began to be assembled in 1949. The company was dissolved in 2006 and the old plant torn down.
  • Hero Motors is a former moped and scooter manufacturer based in Delhi, India. It is a part of multinational company Hero Group, which also currently owns Hero Motocorp formerly Hero Honda and Hero Cycles, among others. Hero Motors was started in the 1960s to manufacture 50cc two-stroke mopeds but gradually diversified into making larger mopeds, mokicks and scooters in the 1980s and the 1990s. Noteworthy collaborators and technical partners were Puch of Austria and Malaguti of Italy. Due to tightening emission regulations and poor sales, Hero motors have discontinued the manufacture of all gasoline powered vehicles and transformed itself into an electric two-wheeler and auto parts manufacturer.
  • Ideal Jawa - motorcycle company based in Mysore, sold licensed Jawa and ČZ motorcycles beginning in 1960 under the brand name Jawa and later Yezdi.
  • Automobile Products of India or API - founded in 1949 at Bombay now Mumbai, by the British company Rootes Group, and later bought by M. A. Chidambaram of the MAC Group from Madras now Chennai. The company manufactured Lambretta scooters, API Three Wheelers under licence from Innocenti of Italy and automobile ancillaries, notably clutch and braking systems. APIs registered offices were earlier in Mumbai, later shifted to Chennai, in Tamil Nadu. The manufacturing facilities were located in Mumbai and Aurangabad in Maharashtra and in Ambattur, Chennai. The company has not been operational since 2002.
  • Escorts Yamaha - in 1984 Escorts formed a joint venture with Yamaha to manufacture motorcycles. In 2008 became India Yamaha Motor.
                                     

7. Automotive Research Association of India - Standards

The Government of India felt the need for a permanent agency to expedite the publication of standards and development of test facilities in parallel with the work of the preparation of the standards - as the development of improved safety critical parts could be undertaken only after the publication of the standard and commissioning of test facilities. The Ministry of Surface Transport MoST constituted a permanent Automotive Industry Standards Committee AISC. The Standards prepared by AISC will be approved by the permanent CMVR Technical Standing Committee CTSC. After approval, the Automotive Research Association of India ARAI will publish this standard.

Intelligent Transport Systems ITS are globally proven systems to optimize the utilization of existing transport infrastructure and improve transportation systems in terms of efficiency, quality, comfort and safety. Having realized the potential of ITS, Government bodies and other organizations in India are presently working towards implementing various components of ITS across the country.

The first step taken for creation and implementation of ITS was holding a National Workshop titled "User Requirements for Interactive ITS Architecture", which was conducted as a collaboration between SIAM and ASRTU on 26 & 27 February 2015. This was primarily focused on ITS in Public Bus Transportation. Nonetheless, the workshop helped to create the outline for "National Intelligent Transport System Architecture and Policy for Public Transport Bus", which was submitted by ASRTU and SIAM to the government

In the 44th & 45th CMVR-TSC, Chairman had directed - standardization activities to be initiated on Intelligent Transportation Systems ITS - Vehicle Location Tracking, Camera Surveillance System and Emergency Request Button. The committee intended to extend the above user requirements to all public transportation namely –buses, taxis, etc. The current document covers the requirements for Vehicle Location Tracking and Emergency Button. The other ITS components like PIS, CCTV system, Fare collection etc. are deliberated and would be addressed in later phase and could be added as separate parts to the current document.

Based on these directions, the AISC Panel on ITS has prepared this AIS-140 titled,"Intelligent Transportation Systems ITS - Requirements for Public Transport Vehicle Operation". The panel also deliberated and identified the necessary elements for an effective implementation of vehicle level ITS system.

For AIS-140 Devices, in India, connectivity to report location, and Emergency Panic Button signal is though wireless cellular connectivity. There are device focused Cellular Connectivity Offerings like eSIM4Things available in India, which cater to connectivity requirements of AIS-140 devices. eSIM4Things is fully compatible with all AIS-140 devices and with a connectivity manager and a range of tariff plans.

                                     

8. Bibliography

  • Kamala, T.N. & Doreswamy, A.G. 2007. Strategies for Enhancing Competitiveness of Indian Auto Component Industries. Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode.
  • Tiku, Pran 2008. Six Sizzling Markets: How to Profit from Investing in Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Korea, and Mexico. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-17888-1.
  • Gupta, Sadanand 2012, Automobile Industry in India: A Cluster Approach, Ruby Press & Co., ISBN 978-81-922182-6-7
  • Piplai, Tapas 28 July 2001. "Automobile Industry: Shifting Strategic Focus". Economic and Political Weekly. Mumbai, India: Sameeksha Trust. 36 30: 2892–2897.