ⓘ 1795–1820 in Western fashion
Fashion in the period 1795–1820 in European and European-influenced countries saw the final triumph of undress or informal styles over the brocades, lace, periwigs and powder of the earlier 18th century. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, no one wanted to appear to be a member of the French aristocracy, and people began using clothing more as a form of individual expression of the true self than as a pure indication of social status. As a result, the shifts that occurred in fashion at the turn of the 19th century granted the opportunity to present new public identities that also provided insights into their private selves. Katherine Aaslestad indicates how "fashion, embodying new social values, emerged as a key site of confrontation between tradition and change."
For womens dress, the day to day outfit of the skirt and jacket style were practical and tactful, recalling the working-class woman. Womens fashions followed classical ideals, and tightly laced corsets were temporarily abandoned in favor of a high-waisted, natural figure. This natural figure was emphasized by being able to see the body beneath the clothing. Visible breasts were part of this classical look, and some characterized the breasts in fashion as solely aesthetic and sexual.
In Britain, the era of Regency in England covered the years when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son, the Prince of Wales ruled England as Prince Regent before his accession as King George IV. But the broadest definition of the period, characterized by trends in fashion, architecture, culture, and politics, begins with the French Revolution of 1789 and ends with Queen Victorias rise to power. The names of popular people who lived in this time are still famous: Napoleon I Bonaparte and Josephine, Madame Recamier, Jane Austen, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lord Byron, Beau Brummell, Lady Emma Hamilton, Queen Louise of Prussia and her husband and many more. Beau Brummell introduced trousers, perfect tailoring, and unadorned, immaculate linen as the ideals of mens fashion.
In Germany, republican city-states relinquished their traditional, modest, and practical garments and started to embrace the French and English fashion trends of short-sleeved chemise dresses and Spencer jackets. American fashion trends emulated French dress, but in a toned down manner with shawls and tunics to cope with the sheerness of the chemise. However, in Spain, members of the Aristocracy, as well as citizens of the lower class, united and rebelled against French enlightenment ideals and fashion by dressing as majas and majos to contain their Spanish pride.
By the end of the eighteenth century, a major shift in fashion was taking place that extended beyond changes in mere style to changes in philosophical and social ideals. Prior to this time, the style and traditions of the "Ancien Regime" prevented the conceptualization of "the self". Instead, ones identity was considered malleable; subject to change depending on what clothes one was wearing. However, by the 1780s, the new, "natural" style allowed ones inner self to transcend their clothes.
During the 1790s, there was a new concept of the internal and external self. Before this time, there had only been one self, which was expressed through clothing. When going to a masquerade ball, people wore specific clothing, so they could not show their individuality through their clothing. Incorporated in this new "natural" style was the importance of ease and comfort of ones dress. Not only was there a new emphasis on hygiene, but also clothing became much lighter and more able to be changed and washed frequently. Even upper-class women began wearing cropped dresses as opposed to dresses with long trains or hoops that restricted them from leaving their homes. The subsequent near stasis of the silhouette inspired volumes of new trims and details on heavily trimmed skirts back into fashion. In the Regency years, complicated historic and orientalist elements provided lavish stylistic displays as such details were a vigorous vehicle for conspicuous consumption given their labor-intensive fabrications, and therefore a potent signifier of hierarchy for the upper classes who wore the styles. This kind of statement was particularly noticeable in profuse trimmings, especially on skirts where unrestrained details were common, along with cut edge details and edge trims.
Womens fashion was also influenced by male fashion, such as tailored waistcoats and jackets to emphasize womens mobility. This new movement toward practicality of dress showed that dress became less of a way to solely categorize between classes or genders; dress was meant to suit ones personal daily routine. It was also during this time period that the fashion magazine and journal industry began to take off. They were most often monthly often competing periodicals that allowed men and women to keep up with the ever-changing styles.
1. Influence of Industrial Revolution on fashion
In the late 18th century, clothes were mostly sold by individual shopkeepers who were often the artisans who made the goods. Customers usually lived in the same neighborhood as the shops and the shops would gain popularity by their customers word-of–mouth recommendation, with the exception of warehouses i.e., any retail on wholesale, where goods being sold were not necessarily made in the shop. However, things started to change during the transition to the 19th century. People sought efficiency and variety; under the influence of the Industrial Revolution, improved transportation and introduction of machines in manufacturing allowed fashion to develop at an even faster pace.
The first sewing machine emerged in 1790, and later, Josef Madersperger began developing his first sewing machine in 1807, presenting his first working machine in 1814. The introduction of the sewing machine sped up garment production. Meanwhile, advanced spinning, weaving and cotton-printing techniques developed in the 18th century had already brought detailed, washable fabrics. These durable and affordable fabrics became popular among the majority population. These techniques were further developed by the introduction of machines. Before, accessories like embroidery and lace were manufactured on a small and limited scale by skilled craftsmen and sold in their own shops; in 1804, a machine for embroidering was constructed by John Duncan, and people started producing these essential accessories in factories and dispatching the products to shops throughout the country. These technical developments in clothing production allowed a greater variety of styles; rapid changes in fashion also became possible.
The Industrial Revolution bridged Europe and America with regards to travel. When Louis Simond first arrived to America, he was struck by the mobility of the population and frequency of people made trips to the capital, writing "you meet nowhere with those persons who never were out of their native place, and whose habits are wholly local - nobody above poverty who has not visited London once in his life; and most of those who can, visit once a year. New canals and railways not only transported people, but created national and even broader markets by transporting goods that manufactured in factories in great distances. The rise of industry throughout the Western world increased garment production and people were encouraged to travel more widely and purchase more goods than ever before.
Communication was also improved in this era. New ideas about fashion were conveyed by little dolls dressed in the latest style, newspapers, and illustrated magazines; for example, La Belle Assemblee, founded by John Bell, was a British womens magazine published from 1806 to 1837. It was best known for its fashion plates of Regency era styles, showing how women should dress and behave. When fashion became available for everybody, people were expected to dress according to the latest fashion. Dressmakers would show the fashion-plates to their customers, so that customers could catch up to the latest styles.
2. Changes in fashion
- Women: "age of undress"; dressing like statues coming to life; fillet-Greek classical hairstyle; simple muslin chemise w. ribbon; sheer; empire silhouette; pastel fabrics; natural makeup; bare arms; blonde wigs; accessorized with to demonstrate individuality: hats, turbans, gloves, jewelry, small handbags – reticules, shawls, handkerchiefs; parasols; fans; Maja: layered skirt
- Men: trousers w. perfect tailoring; linen; coats cutaway in the front w. long tails; cloaks; hats; the Dandy; Majo: short jacket
- Men: linen shirts w. high collars; tall hats; hair: short and wigless, à la Titus or Bedford Crop, but often with some long locks left coming down
- Women: short hair; white hats; trim, feathers, lace; Egyptian and Eastern influences in jewelry and apparel; shawls; hooded-overcoats; hair: masses of curls, sometimes pulled back into a bun
- Women: soft, subtle, sheer classical drapes; raised back waist of high-waisted dresses; short-fitted single breasted jackets; morning dress; walking dress; evening dress; riding habits; bare bosoms and arms; hair: parted in the center, tight ringlets over the ears
- Men: fitted, single-breasted tailcoats; cravats wrapped up to the chin; sideburns and "Brutus style" natural hair; tight breeches; silk stockings; accessorized with: gold watches, cane, hats outside.
- Men: overcoats/greatcoats w. fur or velvet collars; the Garrick coat; Wellington boots; jockey boots
- Women: dress waist lines began to drop; elaborate hem and neckline decoration; cone-shaped skirts; sleeves pinched
3.1. Womens fashion Overview
In this period, fashionable womens clothing styles were based on the Empire silhouette - dresses were closely fitted to the torso just under the bust, falling loosely below. In different contexts, such styles are commonly called "Directoire style" referring to the Directory government of France during the second half of the 1790s, "Empire style" referring to Napoleons 1804–1814/1815 empire, and often also to his 1800–1804 "consulate", or "Regency" loosely used to refer to various periods between the 18th century and the Victorian.
These 1795–1820 fashions were quite different from the styles prevalent during most of the 18th century and the rest of the 19th century, when womens clothes were generally tight against the torso from the natural waist upwards, and heavily full-skirted below. Womens fashion around this time started to follow classical ideals, inspired by the ancient Greek and Roman style with its gracious, loosely falling dresses that were gathered or just accentuated over the natural waist under the bust. For women, tightly laced corsets and brocade gave way to a celebration of the natural form. A womans body shape was to be celebrated. Bodices were short with waistlines falling just below the bust. The Empire silhouette defines a dress with a high waist and a long and loosely falling skirt, which lengthens and flatters the body but does not always make it look slim. Fabrics were light to the point of being sheer below the bodice, which made them easier to keep clean. Because gown fabrics were so light, womens fashions consisted of three layers.
3.2. Womens fashion Gowns
Inspired by neoclassical tastes, undress was the style of the day, casual and informal. It was the type of gown a woman wore from morning until noon or later depending on her social engagements of the day. The short-waisted dresses sported soft, loose skirts and were often made of white, almost transparent muslin, which was easily washed and draped loosely like the garments on Greek and Roman statues. Since the fabric clung to the body, revealing what was underneath, it made nudity à la grecque a centerpiece of public spectacle.Satin was sometimes worn for evening wear. Half Dress is thought of as how one would dress when going out during the day or meeting with guests.Full Dress was what a lady wore to formal events, day or night. Evening Dress was only appropriate at evening affairs.Thus during the 1795–1820 period, it was often possible for middle- and upper-class women to wear clothes that were not very confining or cumbersome, and still be considered decently and fashionably dressed.
Among middle- and upper-class women there was a basic distinction between "morning dress" worn at home in the afternoons as well as mornings and evening attire - generally, both men and women changed clothes in preparation for the evening meal and possible entertainments to follow. There were also further gradations such as afternoon dress, walking dress, riding habits, travelling dress, dinner dress, etc.
In the Mirror of Graces; or the English Ladys Costume, published in London in 1811, the author "a Lady of Distinction" advised:
In the morning the arms and bosom must be completely covered to the throat and wrists. From the dinner-hour to the termination of the day, the arms, to a graceful height above the elbow, may be bare; and the neck and shoulders unveiled as far as delicacy will allow.
- Morning dresses were worn inside the house. They were high-necked and long-sleeved, covering throat and wrists, and generally plain and devoid of decoration.
- Evening gowns were often extravagantly trimmed and decorated with lace, ribbons, and netting. They were cut low and sported short sleeves, baring bosoms. Bared arms were covered by long white gloves. Our Lady of Distinction, however, cautions young women from displaying their bosoms beyond the boundaries of decency, saying, "The bosom and shoulders of a very young and fair girl may be displayed without exciting much displeasure or disgust."
A Lady of Distinction also advised young ladies to wear softer shades of color, such as pinks, periwinkle blue, or lilacs. The mature matron could wear fuller colors, such as purple, black, crimson, deep blue, or yellow.
Many women of this era remarked upon how being fully dressed meant the bosom and shoulders were bare, and yet being under-dressed would mean ones neckline went right up to ones chin.
3.3. Womens fashion Hairstyles and headgear
During this period, the classical influence extended to hairstyles. Often masses of curls were worn over the forehead and ears, with the longer back hair drawn up into loose buns or Psyche knots influenced by Greek and Roman styles. By the later 1810s, front hair was parted in the center and worn in tight ringlets over the ears. Adventurous women like Lady Caroline Lamb wore short cropped hairstyles "à la Titus", the Journal de Paris reporting in 1802 that "more than half of elegant women were wearing their hair or wig à la Titus ", a layered cut usually with some tresses hanging down.
In the Mirror of Graces, a Lady of Distinction writes,
Now, easy tresses, the shining braid, the flowing ringlet confined by the antique comb, or bodkin, give graceful specimens of the simple taste of modern beauty. Nothing can correspond more elegantly with the untrammeled drapery of our newly-adopted classic raiment than this undecorated coiffure of nature.
Conservative married women continued to wear linen mob caps, which now had wider brims at the sides to cover the ears. Fashionable women wore similar caps for morning at home undress wear.
For the first time in centuries, respectable but daringly fashionable women would leave the house without a hat or bonnet, previously something often associated with prostitutes. However most women continued to wear something on their head outdoors, though they were beginning to cease to do so indoors during the day as well as for evening wear. The antique head-dress, or Queen Mary coif, Chinese hat, Oriental inspired turban, and Highland helmet were popular. As for bonnets, their crowns and brims were adorned with increasingly elaborate ornamentations, such as feathers and ribbons. In fact, ladies of the day embellished their hats frequently, replacing old decorations with new trims or feathers.
3.4. Womens fashion Undergarments
Fashionable women of the Regency era wore several layers of undergarments. The first was the chemise, or shift, a thin garment with tight, short sleeves and a low neckline if worn under evening wear, made of white cotton and finished with a plain hem that was shorter than the dress. These shifts were meant to protect the outer-clothes from perspiration and were washed more frequently than outer clothes. In fact, washer women of the time used coarse soap when scrubbing these garments, then plunged them in boiling water, hence the absence of color, lace, or other embellishments, which would have faded or damaged the fabric under such rough treatment. Chemises and shifts also prevented the transparent muslin or silk dresses from being too revealing.
The next layer was a pair of stays or corset. However, high-waisted classical fashions required no corset for the slight of figure, and there were some experiments to produce garments which would serve the same functions as a modern brassiere. "Short stays" corsets extending only a short distance below the breasts were often worn over the shift or chemise not directly next to the skin, and "long stays" corsets extending down towards the natural waist were worn by a minority of women trying to appear slimmer than they were but even such long stays were not primarily intended to constrict the waist, in the manner of Victorian corsets.
The final layer was the petticoat, which could have a scooped neckline and was sleeveless, and was fitted in the back with hooks and eyelets, buttons or tapes. These petticoats were often worn between the underwear and the outer dress and was considered part of the outer clothing not underwear. The lower edge of the petticoat was intended to be seen, since women would often lift their outer dresses to spare the relatively delicate material of the outer dress from mud or damp so exposing only the coarser and cheaper fabric of the petticoat to risk. Often exposed to view, petticoats were decorated at the hem with rows of tucks or lace, or ruffles.
"Drawers" underpants with short legs were only beginning to be worn by a few women during this period. They were tied separately around the waist.
Stockings hosiery, made of silk or knitted cotton, were held up by garters below the knee until suspenders were introduced in the late 19th century and were often of a white or pale flesh color
3.5. Womens fashion Outerwear and shoes
During this time period, womens clothing was much thinner than in the eighteenth century so warmer outerwear became important in fashion, especially in colder climates. Coat-like garments such as pelisses and redingotes were popular, as were shawls, mantles, mantelets, capes and cloaks. The mantelet was a short cape that was eventually lengthened and made into a shawl. The redingote, another popular example, was a full-length garment resembling a mans riding coat hence the name in style, that could be made of different fabrics and patterns. Throughout the period, the Indian shawl was the favoured wrap, as houses and the typical English country house were generally draughty, and the sheer muslin and light silk dresses popular during this time provided less protection. Shawls were made of soft cashmere or silk or even muslin for summer. Paisley patterns were extremely popular at the time.
Short high-waisted jackets called spencers were worn outdoors, along with long-hooded cloaks, Turkish wraps, mantles, capes, Roman tunics, chemisettes, and overcoats called pelisses which were often sleeveless and reached down as far as the ankles. These outer garments were often made of double sarsnet, fine Merino cloth, or velvets, and trimmed with fur, such as swans down, fox, chinchilla, or sable. On May 6, 1801, Jane Austen wrote her sister Cassandra, "Black gauze cloaks are worn as much as anything."
Thin, flat fabric silk or velvet or leather slippers were generally worn as opposed to the high-heeled shoes of much of the 18th century.
Metal pattens were strapped on shoes to protect them from rain or mud, raising the feet an inch or so off the ground.
3.6. Womens fashion Accessories
Gloves were always worn by women outside the house. When worn inside, as when making a social call, or on formal occasions, such as a ball, they were removed when dining. About the length of the glove, A Lady of Distinction writes:
If the prevailing fashion be to reject the long sleeve, and to partially display the arm, let the glove advance considerably above the elbow, and there be fastened with a draw-string or armlet. But this should only be the case when the arm is muscular, coarse, or scraggy. When it is fair, smooth, and round, it will admit of the glove being pushed down to a little above the wrists.
Longer gloves were worn rather loosely during this period, crumpling below the elbow. As described in the passage above, "garters" could fasten longer gloves.
Reticules held personal items, such as vinaigrettes. The form-fitting dresses or frocks of the day had no pockets, thus these small drawstring handbags were essential. These handbags were often called buskins or balantines. They were rectangular in shape and was worn suspended by a woven band from a belt placed around the figure above the waist.
Parasols as shown in the illustration protected a ladys skin from the sun, and were considered an important fashion accessory. Slender and light in weight, they came in a variety of shapes, colors, and sizes.
Fashionable ladies and gentlemen used fans to cool themselves and to enhance gestures and body language. Made of paper or silk on sticks of ivory and wood, and printed with oriental motifs or popular scenes of the era, these ubiquitous accessories featured a variety of shapes and styles, such as pleated or rigid. An information sheet from the Cheltenham Museum describes fans and their use in body language and communication click and scroll to page 4.
3.7. Womens fashion Directoire 1795–1799
By the mid-1790s, neoclassical clothing had come into fashion in France. Several influences had combined to bring about this simplification in womens clothing: aspects of Englishwomens practical country outdoor-wear leaked up into French high fashion, and there was a reaction in revolutionary France against the stiffly boned corsets and brightly colored satins and other heavy fabrics that were in style in the Ancien Regime see 1750–1795 in fashion. But ultimately, Neo-classicism was adopted for its association with classical republican ideas. This renewed fascination of the classical past was encouraged by the recent discoveries of Pompeii and Herculaneum, and would likely have not been possible outside such a specific geographic and historical setting that allowed the idea of the past made present to become paramount.
Along with the influences of the Pompeii and Herculaneum excavations, several other factors came together to popularize neoclassical dress. Starting in the early 1790s, Emma Hamilton began her performances of attitudes, something that was considered by contemporaries as entirely new. These attitudes were based loosely on the ancient practice of pantomime, though Emmas performances lacked masks and musical accompaniment. Her performances created a fusion between art and nature; art came alive and her body became a type of art. As an aid to her performances of tragic mythological and historical figures, Emma wore the clothing la grecque that would become popular in mainstream France in the coming years. A simple light colored chemise made from thin, flowing material was worn and gathered with a narrow ribbon under the breasts. Simple cashmere shawls were used as headdresses or to give more fullness to the drapery of the chemise. They also helped to prevent broken lines in the performance so that the outstretched arms were always connected with the body, escalating the effect of fluid movement, and oftentimes, a cape or a cloak was worn to emphasize the lines of the body in certain poses. This highlighted the continuity of surface of line and form in the body of the performer to emphasize the unity, simplicity, and continuously flowing movement from one part of the body to the next. The hair was worn in a natural, loose, and flowing fashion. All of these properties blended together to allow an extensive play of light and shadow to reveal and accent certain parts of the body during the performance, while covering others. Emma was highly capable in her attitudes, and the influence of her dress spread from Naples to Paris as wealthy Parisians took the Grand Tour.
There is also some evidence that the white muslin shift dress became popular after Thermidor through the influence of prison dress. Revolutionary women such as Madame Tallien portrayed themselves in this way because it was the only clothing they possessed during their time in prison. The chemise la grecque also represented the struggle for representation of the self and the stripping down of past cultural values. Also, a simplification of the attire worn by preteen girls in the 1780s who were no longer required to wear miniature versions of adult stays and panniers probably paved the way for the simplification of the attire worn by teenage girls and adult women in the 1790s. Waistlines became somewhat high by 1795, but skirts were still rather full, and neoclassical influences were not yet dominant.
It was during the second half of the 1790s that fashionable women in France began to adopt a thoroughgoing Classical style, based on an idealized version of ancient Greek and Roman dress or what was thought at the time to be ancient Greek and Roman dress, with narrow clinging skirts. Some of the extreme Parisian versions of the neoclassical style were not widely adopted elsewhere, but many features of the late-1790s neoclassical style were broadly influential, surviving in successively modified forms in European fashions over the next two decades.
With this Classical style came the willingness to expose the breast. With the new iconography of the Revolution as well as a change in emphasis on maternal breast-feeding, the chemise dress became a sign of the new egalitarian society. The style was simple and appropriate for the comfort of a pregnant or nursing woman as the breasts were emphasized and their availability was heightened. Maternity became fashionable and it was not uncommon for women to walk around with their breasts exposed. Some women took the "fashionable maternity" a step further and wore a "six-month pad" under their dress to appear pregnant.
White was considered the most suitable color for neoclassical clothing accessories were often in contrasting colors. Short trains trailing behind were common in dresses of the late 1790s.
3.8. Womens fashion Directoire gallery
- This portrait of the Frankland sisters by John Hoppner gives an idea of the styles of 1795.
- Portrait of Gabrielle Josephine du Pont.
- Leipzig fashion plate showing woman and girl wearing elegantly simple high-waisted styles, which are not strongly neoclassical, however.
- Riding habits of 1799. The habit on the right features a short jacket with tails. The green habit on the left may be a redingote rather than a jacket and petticoat.
- A 1798 sketch of a day outfit with short "spencer" jacket less neoclassical, though still following the empire silhouette.
- Fashion plate of white Directoire dress worn with contrasting red shawl with Greek key border.
- "Ruth entreating Naomi and Orpah to return to the land of Moab" by William Blake. Blake is not a typical neo-classicist, but this shows a somewhat similar idealization of antiquity as well as predicting the future high fashions of the late 1790s. The particular image was composed in 1795 and is currently held by the Fitzwilliam Museum.
- 1798 picture, showing a lady who seems none too warmly attired for a balloon journey in her low-cut thin-looking Directoire dress.
3.9. Womens fashion Caricatures
- "Tippies of 1796", a highly stylized parody which caricatures womens feather headdresses and dandies tight trousers, among other things.
- "TOO MUCH and TOO LITTLE, or Summer Clothing of 1556 & 1796", a February 8, 1796, caricature engraved by Isaac Cruikshank father of George after a drawing by George M. Woodward. In 1796, strongly neoclassically influenced styles were still very new in England. Notice the single vertical feather springing from the hair of the 1796 woman.
- "Parisian ladies in their full winter dress", an over-the-top caricature by Isaac Cruikshank of allegedly excessively diaphanous styles worn in late 1790s Paris.
3.10. Womens fashion Empire 1800–1815
During the first two decades of the 19th century, fashions continued to follow the basic high-waisted empire silhouette, but in other respects neoclassical influences became progressively diluted. Dresses remained narrow in front, but fullness at the raised back waist allowed room to walk. Colors other than white came into style, the fad for diaphanous outer fabrics faded except in certain formal contexts, and some elements of obvious visible ornamentation came back into use in the design of the dress as opposed to the elegant simplicity or subtle white-on-white embroidery of the dress of ca. 1800.
3.11. Womens fashion Empire gallery
- Portrait of a woman by Henri Mulard, ca. 1810.
- 1804 French painting by Marguerite Gerard showing two different dresses, one more elaborate than the other. Note the low neckline then in fashion.
- Mrs Harrison Gray Otis wears a dress with a sheer top layer over a partial lining and a patterned shawl. She wears a gold armlet on her left arm. Her hair is styled in loose waves at the temples and over her ears. Massachusetts, 1809.
- Marguerite-Charlotte David wears a simple white satin evening gown and the ubiquitous shawl. Her headdress is trimmed with ostrich plumes.
- Paris Fashion of 1804. Note the even more generous neckline.
- 1810 sketch of woman in "Schute" bonnet and blue-striped dress with flounces.
- 1810 evening gown, shown with elbow-length gloves.
- Conservative fashion: Mob cap of c. 1805 is pleated in the front and has a narrow frilled brim that widens to cover the ears. America.
- Dolley Madison wears short sleeved, light-pink dress with a high waist line. She also wears a thin, chain necklace, a golden-colored shawl, and her hair in a bun with loose waves; the simplicity, yet elegance, of her attire is typical of the era.
- 1809 evening gown worn with elbow-length gloves.
3.12. Womens fashion Caricatures
- "The Fashions of the Day, or Time Past and Present", a caricature purporting to show the provocative and revealing character of 1807 fashions as compared to those of the 18th century deliberately exaggerating the contrast.
- "Three Graces in a High Wind", 1810 caricature by Gillray. A satire of clinging dresses worn with few layers of petticoats beneath.
3.13. Womens fashion Regency 1815–1820 gallery
This era signaled the loss of any lingering neoclassical, pseudo-Grecian styles in womens dress. This decline was especially evident in France due to the Emperor Napoleons suppression of trade in the fabrics used in neoclassical dress. While waistlines were still high, they were beginning to drop slightly. Larger and more abundant decoration, especially near the hem and neckline foreshadowed greater extravagance in the coming years. More petticoats were being worn, and a stiffer, more cone-shaped skirt became popular. Stiffness could be supplemented by layers of ruffles and tucks on a hem, as well as corded or flounced petticoats. Sleeves began to be pulled, tied, and pinched in ways that were more influenced by romantic and gothic styles than neoclassical. Hats and hairstyles became more elaborate and trimmed, climbing higher to balance widening skirts.
- 1817 walking costume is heavily trimmed and tasseled.
- 1819 evening gown, with ornamentation near the hem.
- 1817 dancing illustration, showing the beginning of the trend towards a conical silhouette.
- 1815 walking costume
- "Morning dress" for staying inside the house during the mornings and early afternoons, 1819.
- Mary Lodge wears the new fashion for rich color. Her crimson evening gown with frills at neck and sleeves is worn with an ivory shawl with a wide paisley-patterned border, 1818.
- 1818 evening gown
- Comtesse Vilain and her daughter wear their hair parted in the front center with tight ringlets over each ear; back hair is brushed back into a bun. 1816.
3.14. Womens fashion Caricature
- "Monstrosities of 1818", a satire by George Cruikshank of the female trend towards a conical silhouette, and male high cravats and dandyism.
4.1. Mens fashion Overview
This period saw the final abandonment of lace, embroidery, and other embellishment from serious mens clothing outside of formalized court dress - it would not reappear except as an affectation of Aesthetic dress in the 1880s and its successor, the "Young Edwardian" look of the 1960s. Instead, cut and tailoring became much more important as an indicator of quality. This transformation can be attributed in part to an increased interest in antiquity stemming from the discovery of classical engravings, including the Elgin Marbles. The figures depicted in classical art were viewed as an exemplar of the ideal natural form, and an embodiment of Neoclassical ideas. The style in London for men became more and more refined and this was due to the influence of two things: the dandy and the romantic movement. The dandy a man who placed high importance on personal aesthetics and hobbies but wanted to seem totally nonchalant about it arguably emerged as early as the 1790s. Dark colors were all but mandatory. Blue tailcoats with gold buttons, were everywhere. White muslin shirts sometimes with ruffles on the neck/sleeves were extremely popular. Breeches were officially on their way out, with pants/trousers taking their place. Fabrics in general were becoming more practical silk and more wool, cotton, and buckskin. Therefore, in the 18th century, dress was simplified and greater emphasis was put on tailoring to enhance the natural form of the body.
This was also the period of the rise of hair wax for styling mens hair, as well as mutton chops as a style of facial hair.
Breeches became longer - tightly fitted leather riding breeches reached almost to the boot tops - and were replaced by pantaloons or trousers for fashionable street wear. The French Revolution is largely responsible for altering standard male dress. During the revolution, clothing symbolized the division between the upper classes and the working class revolutionaries. French rebels earned the nickname sans-culottes, or ".
Brummell abandoned his wig and cut his hair short in a Roman fashion dubbed à la Brutus, echoing the fashion for all things classical seen in womens wear of this period. He also led the move from breeches to snugly tailored pantaloons or trousers, often light-colored for day and dark for evening, based on working-class clothing adopted by all classes in France in the wake of the Revolution. In fact, Brummels reputation for taste and refinement was such that, fifty years after his death, Max Beerbohm, wrote:
In certain congruities of dark cloth, in the rigid perfection of his linen, in the symmetry of his glove with his hand, lay the secret of Mr Brummells miracles.
Not every male aspiring to attain Brummels sense of elegance and style succeeded, however, and these dandies were subject to caricature and ridicule. Venetia Murray quotes an excerpt from Diary of an Exquisite, from The Hermit in London, 1819:
Took four hours to dress; and then it rained; ordered the tilbury and my umbrella, and drove to the fives court; next to my tailors; put him off after two years tick; no bad fellow that Weston.broke three stay-laces and a buckle, tore the quarter of a pair of shoes, made so thin by OShaughnessy, in St. Jamess Street, that they were light as brown paper; what a pity they were lined with pink satin, and were quite the go; put on a pair of Hobys; over-did it in perfuming my handkerchief, and had to recommence de novo ; could not please myself in tying my cravat; lost three quarters of an hour by that, tore two pairs of kid gloves in putting them hastily on; was obliged to go gently to work with the third; lost another quarter of an hour by this; drove off furiously in my chariot but had to return for my splendid snuff-box, as I knew that I should eclipse the circle by it.
4.2. Mens fashion Hairstyles and headgear
During this period, younger men of fashion began to wear their hair in short curls, often with long sideburns. In 1795, Pitts hair powder tax effectively ended the fashion for wigs and powder, and new styles like the Brutus and the Bedford Crop became fashionable. Older men, military officers, and those in conservative professions such as lawyers, judges, physicians, and servants retained their wigs and powder. Formal court dress also still required powdered hair.
Tricorne and bicorne hats were still worn, but the most fashionable hat was tall and slightly conical; this would soon however be displaced by the top hat and reign as the only hat for formal occasions for the next century.
4.3. Mens fashion Style gallery 1795–1809
- Portrait of boxer "Jem" Belcher wearing a patterned cravat and a double-breasted brown coat with a dark fur or velvet? collar, c. 1800.
- Count Victor Kochubeys collar reaches his chin, and his cravat is wrapped around his neck and tied in a small bow. His short hair is casually dressed and falls over his forehead, 1809.
- Friedrich von Schiller wears a brown double-breasted coat with a contrasting collar and brass buttons. The pleated frill of his shirt front can be seen next to the knot of his white cravat, Germany, 1808–09.
- Elaborate embroidery remained a feature of formal court suits like this one, which pairs a red wool coat with a cloth-of-silver waistcoat, both embroidered in silver thread. Italy, c. 1800–1810. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, M.80.60a-b.
- Portrait of Danish adventurer Jorgen Jorgensen shows how Scandinavian society has viewed mens fashion in the Age of Revolution.
- In this self-portrait of 1805, Washington Allston wears a tan cravat with his high white collar and dark coat. Boston.
- Chateaubriand has fashionably tousled hair. He wears a long redingote over his coat, tan waistcoat, white shirt and dark cravat, 1808.
- Rubens Peale wears a white waistcoat with a tall upright notched collar over his high shirt collar and wide cravat. America, 1807.
- Portrait of Gwyllym Lloyd Wardle depicts him in a dark coat over a tan waistcoat and high collar and cravat, 1809.
- Watercolor of Beau Brummell by Richard Dighton.
4.4. Mens fashion Style gallery 1810–1820
- Marcotte dArgenteuil wears a high-collared shirt with a dark cravat, a buff waistcoat, a double-breasted brown coat with covered buttons, and a dark gray overcoat with contrasting collar perhaps sealskin. 1810. His bicorne hat lies on the table.
- American artist Samuel Lovett Waldo wears a frilled shirt with a knotted white cravat.
- Unknown artist wears a double-breasted tail coat with turned-back cuffs and a matching high collar of velvet or possibly fur. Note that, while the mans obvious wasp-like torso is not overly emphasized in a caricature-like fashion, was often the case in male fashion plates of the day, there is a definite and deliberate nipping of the waist. It is highly likely that the sitter in this portrait wore some sort of tight-laced corset or similar undergarment. The coat-sleeves are puffed at the shoulder. He wears a white waistcoat, shirt, and cravat, and light-colored pantaloons, 1819.
- Nicolas-Pierre Tiolier wears a rich blue tailcoat and brown fall-front trousers over white waistcoat, shirt, and cravat. His tall hat sits on an antique plinth, 1817.
- Lord Grantham wears a double-breasted coat which shows a bit of the waistcoat beneath at the waist, tight pantaloons tucked into boots, and a high collar and cravat, 1816.
- Les Modernes Incroyables, a satire on French fashions of 1810; long tight breeches or pantaloons, short coats with tails, and massive cravats.
- Daniel la Motte, a Baltimore, Maryland, merchant and landowner, strikes a romantic pose that displays details of his white waistcoat, frilled shirt, and fall-front breeches with covered buttons at the knee, 1812–13.
- German physician Johann Abraham Albers wears a striped waistcoat under a black double-breasted coat, 1813.
5. Revival of Directoire/Empire/Regency fashions
During the first half of the Victorian era, there was a more or less negative view of womens styles of the 1795–1820 period. Some people would have felt slightly uncomfortable to be reminded that their mothers or grandmothers had once promenaded about in such styles which could be considered indecent according to Victorian norms, and many would have found it somewhat difficult to really empathize with or take seriously the struggles of a heroine of art or literature if they were being constantly reminded that she was wearing such clothes. For such reasons, some Victorian history paintings of the Napoleonic wars intentionally avoided depicting accurate womens styles see example below, Thackerays illustrations to his book Vanity Fair depicted the women of the 1810s wearing 1840s fashions, and in Charlotte Brontes 1849 novel Shirley set in 1811–1812 neo-Grecian fashions are anachronistically relocated to an earlier generation.
Later in the Victorian period, the Regency seemed to retreat to an unthreateningly remote historical distance, and Kate Greenaway and the Artistic Dress movement selectively revived elements of early 19th century fashions. During the late Victorian and Edwardian periods, many genre paintings, sentimental valentines, etc. contained loose depictions of 1795–1820 styles then considered to be quaint relics of a bygone era. In the late 1960s / early 1970s, there was a limited fashion revival of the Empire silhouette.
In recent years, 1795–1820 fashions are most strongly associated with Jane Austens writings, due to the various movie adaptations of her novels. There are also some Regency fashion "urban myths", such as that women dampened their gowns to make them appear even more diaphanous something which was certainly not practiced by the vast majority of women of the period.
- An 1857 cartoon making fun of the contemporary distaste for early 19th century clothes.
- "Two Strings to her Bow" by John Pettie 1882, a later Victorian genre painting which uses the Regency period for nostalgia value.
- "Before Waterloo" by Henry Nelson ONeil 1868, a mid-Victorian painting which deliberately does not show accurate womens styles of 1815.
- May Day by Kate Greenaway.