## ⓘ 108 (number)

108 is:

- nine dozen
- a Harshad number in bases 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 16
- an abundant number.
- a tetranacci number.
- a semiperfect number.
- a self number.
- palindromic in bases 11 99 11, 17 66 17, 26 44 26, 35 33 35 and 53 22 53
- divisible by the value of its φ function, which is 36.
- the angle in degrees of the interior angles of a regular pentagon in Euclidean space.
- the hyperfactorial of 3 since it is of the form 1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 {\displaystyle 1^{1}\cdot 2^{2}\cdot 3^{3}}.
- divisible by the total number of its divisors 12, hence it is a refactorable number.

There are 108 free polyominoes of order 7.

The equation 2 sin 108 ∘ 2 = ϕ {\displaystyle 2\sin \left{\frac {108^{\circ }}{2}}\right=\phi } results in the golden ratio.

## 1. Religion and the arts

The number 108 is considered sacred by the Dharmic Religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

Jainism

In Jainism, the total number of ways of Karma influx Aasrav. 4 Kashays x 3 karanas x 3 stages of planning x 3 ways of execution.

### * 1.1. Religion and the arts * Jainism

In Jainism, the total number of ways of Karma influx Aasrav. 4 Kashays x 3 karanas x 3 stages of planning x 3 ways of execution.

### * 1.2. Religion and the arts * Buddhism

In Buddhism, according to Bhante Gunaratana this number is reached by multiplying the senses smell, touch, taste, hearing, sight, and consciousness by whether they are painful, pleasant or neutral, and then again by whether these are internally generated or externally occurring, and yet again by past, present and future, finally we get 108 feelings. 6 × 3 × 2 × 3 = 108.

Tibetan Buddhist malas or rosaries Tib. ཕྲེང་བ Wyl. phreng ba, "Trengwa" are usually 108 beads; sometimes 111 including the guru beads, reflecting the words of the Buddha called in Tibetan the Kangyur Wylie: Bka-gyur in 108 volumes. Zen priests wear juzu a ring of prayer beads around their wrists, which consists of 108 beads.

The Lankavatara Sutra has a section where the Bodhisattva Mahamati asks Buddha 108 questions and another section where Buddha lists 108 statements of negation in the form of "A statement concerning X is not a statement concerning X." In a footnote, D.T. Suzuki explains that the Sanskrit word translated as "statement" is pada which can also mean "foot-step" or "a position." This confusion over the word "pada" explains why some have mistakenly held that the reference to 108 statements in the Lankavatara refer to the 108 steps that many temples have.

In Japan, at the end of the year, a bell is chimed 108 times in Buddhist temples to finish the old year and welcome the new one. Each ring represents one of 108 earthly temptations Bonnō a person must overcome to achieve nirvana.

### * 1.3. Religion and the arts * Other references

In the neo-Gnostic teachings of Samael Aun Weor, an individual has 108 chances lifetimes to eliminate his egos and transcend the material world before "devolving" and having the egos forcefully removed in the infradimensions.

## 2. Martial arts

Many East Asian martial arts trace their roots back to Buddhism, specifically, to the Buddhist Shaolin Temple. Because of their ties to Buddhism, 108 has become an important symbolic number in a number of martial arts styles.

- According to Marma Adi and Ayurveda, there are 108 pressure points in the body, where consciousness and flesh intersect to give life to the living being.
- The 108 moves of the Yang Taijiquan long form and 108 moves in the Wing Chun wooden dummy form, taught by Ip Man, are noted in this regard.
- 108 number figures prominently in the symbolism associated with karate, particularly the Gōjū-ryū discipline. The ultimate Gōjū-ryū kata, Suparinpei, literally translates to 108. Suparinpei is the Chinese pronunciation of the number 108, while gojūshi of Gojūshiho is the Japanese pronunciation of the number 54. The other Gōjū-ryū kata, Sanseru meaning "36" and Seipai "18" are factors of the number 108.
- Paek Pal Ki Hyung, the 7th form taught in the art of Kuk Sool Won, translates literally to "108 technique" form. It is also frequently referred to as the "eliminate 108 torments" form. Each motion corresponds with one of the 108 Buddhist torments or defilements.
- The Eagle Claw Kung Fu style has a form known as the 108 Locking Hand Techniques. This form is considered the essence of the style, consisting of an encyclopedia of Chin Na techniques, and is said to be passed down from the founder General Yue Fei.
- The Chinese school of martial arts agrees with the South Indian school of martial arts on the principle of 108 pressure points.

## 3. In literature

- In Homers Odyssey, the number of suitors coveting Penelope, wife of Odysseus.
- There are 108 love sonnets in Astrophil and Stella, the first English sonnet sequence by Sir Philip Sidney.
- There are 108 lines in Edgar Allan Poes The Raven.
- There are 108 outlaws in the Chinese classic Water Margin/Outlaws of the Marsh by Shi Naian.

## 4. In science

- The distance of Earth from the Sun is about 108 times the diameter of the Sun actually closer to 107.51, as per definition of the AU. Actual ratio varies between 105.7 Perihelion and 109.3 Aphelion.
- 108 degrees Fahrenheit is the internal temperature at which the human bodys vital organs begin to fail from overheating.
- 108 is the atomic number of hassium.

## 5. In sports

- In 2016 the Chicago Cubs MLB won the World Series for the first time in 108 years, ending the longest championship drought in North American professional sports. The Cubs win came in the 10th inning with 8 runs 108.
- 108 is the number that the Belgian cyclist Wouter Weylandt wore when he crashed fatally in the Giro dItalia on May 9, 2011. As a tribute, many supporters held replicas of his race number by the side of the road the next day. The organization of the Giro dItalia decided not to issue race number 108 in future editions, to commemorate him.
- An official Major League baseball has 108 stitches.

## 6. In other fields

- In India, 108 1-0-8 is the toll-free emergency telephone number.
- In the TV show Lost, the numbers from the fictional Valenzetti equation 4, 8, 15, 16, 23, 42 had to be entered every 108 the sum of the six numbers minutes on a computer to prevent an unknown catastrophic event from occurring.