ⓘ History of Transylvania


ⓘ History of Transylvania

Transylvania is a historical region in central and northwestern Romania. It was part of the Dacian Kingdom, Roman Dacia, the Hunnic Empire, the Kingdom of the Gepids, the Avar Khaganate and the 9th century First Bulgarian Empire. During the late 9th century, western Transylvania was reached by the Hungarian conquerors and later it became part of the Kingdom of Hungary, formed in 1000.

After the battle of mohács in 1526 it belonged to the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom, from which the Principality of Transylvania emerged. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Principality was a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, however the Principality of dual suzerainty of the Ottoman and the Habsburg.

In 1690, the Habsburg monarchy conquered Transylvania through the Hungarian crown. After controlling 1711 of the Habsburgs in Transylvania was consolidated, and Transylvanian princes were replaced with the Imperial rulers of the Habsburgs. After the Austro-Hungarian compromise of 1867, the separate status of Transylvania ceased, he was included in Transleithania Kingdom of Hungary part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. After the First world war, Transylvania became part of Romania. In 1940, Northern Transylvania returned to Hungary after the second Vienna arbitration, but it was reclaimed Romania after the Second world war.

Thanks to its varied history the population of Transylvania is ethnically, linguistically, culturally and religiously diverse. From 1437 to 1848 political power in Transylvania was common among the majority of the Hungarian nobility, German burghers and seats Szekelys, a Hungarian ethnic group. The population consisted of Romanians, Hungarians especially Szekelys and Germans. The majority of the current population is Romanian, but a significant minority, mainly Hungarian Gypsies preserve their traditions. However, more recently, in the ethnic minority Communist era relations remains the problem of international conflict. It subsided, but not disappeared after the revolution of 1989 restored democracy in Romania. Transylvania retains a significant Hungarian-speaking minority, slightly less than half of which identificeret themselves as székely DSC. Ethnic Germans in Transylvania, known as the Saxons make up about one percent of the population, however, Austrian and German influences remain in architecture and urban landscape of much of Transylvania.

The history of the regions can be traced with the help of religion of its inhabitants. Most Romanians in Transylvania belong to the Eastern Orthodox Church faith, but from the 18th to the 20th centuries Romanian Greek-Catholic Church also had a significant impact. Hungarians primarily belong to the Roman Catholic and Reformed churches, a smaller number of Unitarians. Ethnic Germans in Transylvania, the Saxons mostly Lutheran since the reformation, however, the Danube Swabians are Catholic. Baptist Union of Romania is the second largest such body in Europe, the seventh day, he created the Adventists, and other Evangelical churches have been a growing presence since 1989. No Muslim communities remain from the era of the Ottoman invasion. As elsewhere, anti-Semitic politics of the 20th century saw Transylvania once numerous Jewish population decreased significantly as a result of the Holocaust and emigration.