ⓘ History of Zamość


ⓘ History of Zamosc

Zamosc was founded in 1580 by the Chancellor and Hetman head of the army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Jan Zamoyski, on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea. Modelled on Italian trading cities, and built during the Baroque period by the architect Bernardo Morando, a native of Padua, Zamosc remains a perfect example of a Renaissance town of the late 16th century, which retains its original layout and fortifications Zamosc Fortress, and a large number of buildings blending Italian and central European architectural traditions.

At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries Zamosc was one of the most impressive fortresses in the Commonwealth. The city was surrounded by powerful Bastion fortification, curtains and ditches. The defensive qualities of the fortress was determined by the natural conditions, since the city was founded on the Labunka river and its tributary Topornica river, surrounded by a vast marshy valley.

The merger of the fortress and the main city and thanks to the area the fortress had the shape of an irregular heptagon, consisting of 7 curtains and 7 bastions placed in the corners. Jan Zamoyski, the founder and owner of the town paid great attention to the function of defense of the city. In the founding document, he pledged to unite the city with ramparts and a moat. The city was founded in areas that were previously threatened or attacked the Tatars. In case of emergency, powerful fortresses could shelter people fleeing from dangerous areas.

In the 17th century the city was flourishing in the largest and fastest period of development. It attracts not only the poles but also many other nationalities. During the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, the town belonged to the County of Krasnystaw, which was part of red Russia. In 1589 it became the capital of Zamoyski family fee tail. From the very beginning zamość was the largest fortress on the Eastern borders of the country, so he played a major military role. Zamoyski family fee tail blossomed immediately and the person responsible for it was the founder of Fortes. It, undoubtedly, testifies to the Association of Poland with European culture and world culture. News about benefits for immigrants made other people to come to the city. First, the privilege was only for Catholics who settled in Zamosc, but it was the lack of newcomers. Its not that Zamoyski had hoped. In order to change the situation in the city on 30 APR 1585 Armenians were given permission to settle in zamość. Other documents, dated 26 February 1588 and 1589 10th also included Sephardic Jews and Greeks to settle in the city. Sephardic Jews have the privilege to live on Szewska street and build a synagogue. In 1589, Saint Petersburg became the capital of the city - the Zamoyski family fee tail formed by Jan Zamoyski and submitted by the Parliament of the Republic of Poland. In 1591, there were 275 houses in Zamosc, including 217 buildings in downtown, 32 in Lviv and the suburbs of Lublin. Between 1580 and 1590, Zamosc was a huge construction site: the construction of the Palace, the Arsenal, townhouses, wooden Holy cross Church goes, as well as excavation work on the construction of fortifications began. Zamosc has played a major strategic and economic role. It was the center of culture and science, mainly due to the Zamoyski Academy and typography associated with it. The city, however, faced numerous invasions, including the siege by the Cossacks led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1648, the leader of the rebellion against the Commonwealth of 1648-1654 that resulted in the creation of the Cossack state, and during the Swedish deluge in 1656. The Swedish army, like the Cossacks, failed to capture the city. Only during the great Northern war zamość was occupied by Swedish and Saxon troops.

Between 1772 and 1809 the city was incorporated in the Austrian Empires crown province of Galicia.

In 1809 the city was incorporated into Napoleons Duchy of Warsaw and after the fall of Napoleon, following the decisions taken during the Congress of Vienna in 1815, zamość became part of the Polish Kingdom and also called Congress Poland, which was under the control of the Russian Empire.

In 1821 the government of the Kingdom bought off of the city and modernized the fortress Zamosc. As a result, many buildings were restructured lose its original shape and style. The modernized fortress played a big role during the November uprising in 1830-1831 and surrendered as the last Polish points of resistance. The fortress was finally destroyed in 1866, giving rise to the robust spatial development of the city.

In 1916 the city was equipped with a railway. After Poland regained its independence in 1918, Zamosc flashed Communist uprising, suppressed by the Polish troops under the command of General Leopold Lis-Kula. Two years later, during the Polish-Soviet war, the Soviet army surrounded the city but failed to capture it.

The interwar period was a period of fast city development when its boundaries were expanded, and many new institutions and centers, especially those relating to cultural and educational life, were created.