ⓘ History of Tarnobrzeg
History of Tarnobrzeg – In the late 16th century, the area of current Tarnobrzeg, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland emerged as a local center of industry, with several bloomeries mentioned here in 1565. The Tarnowski family sold the products of the bloomeries in Sandomierz and Baranow Sandomierski, deciding that the best solution for the family business would be to establish its own independent urban center. On May 28, 1593 King Zygmunt III Waza granted Magdeburg rights to the family village, with permission to stock wine, to make two fairs a year, as well as two markets a week, on Tuesdays and Fridays. Tarnodwor, as the town was called, was located on a plain near the Vistula river, in the middle of the large family estate, near the Dzikow Castle.
The city center was marked by a market square, which now is called Bartosz glowacki Square. No plans were made for a defensive wall or any of the fortifications, and Tarnodwor was designed to be a trading and craft center. The creation of the city was accelerated in 1620 – 1640 when it was owned by Michal Stanislaw Tarnowski, castellan of wojnicz. Was built the town hall, the medieval Church Miechocin was expanded, along with the Dzikow castle. Jewish settlers came to Tarnodwor, and in 1650-ies, the city was well-established Urban centre of the South-Eastern part of małopolska, Sandomierz Voivodeship. The Swedish invasion of Poland 1655-1660 has led to widespread destruction in the area, the Swedes destroyed Tarnodwor, together with the neighbouring villages. Most likely, the Dzikow castle was saved under unknown circumstances.
After the Swedish invasion of 1655-1660, Tarnodwor was so devastated that the villagers asked of king Jan III Sobieski for the confirmation of the privileges granted to the city of king Sigismund III Vasa. April 14, 1681, Sobieski agreed, in addition, allowing for more fair. However Tarnodwor developed very slowly, due to numerous fires and wars, as the great Northern war, when the troops of the Russian Empire, Swedish Empire and the Kingdom of Saxony, the cause of the destruction is comparable to the Swedish deluge.
After the death of king August II the strong, the Polish gentry again elected Stanislaw Leszczynski. Powerful neighbors, the Commonwealth agreeing with this decision, promoting their own candidate, Augustus III in Poland. Members of the nobility gathered in the castle in Dzikow Oct 1734, called the Confederation, to protect Leszczynski. The choice of Dzikow was purely accidental, as the owner, Jozef, Mateusz Tarnowski was not involved in politics. The Confederation failed, and in 1772 after the first partition of Poland, Tarnodwor was annexed to the Habsburg Empire, where he remained until 1918.
From 1772 to 1795, Tarnodwor was located near the Polish – Austrian border. From 1815 to see Congress Poland, the city lay at the Austrian – Russian border. In 1809, the Dzikow castle was destroyed during the Polish–Austrian war, and in 1815, this area was flooded by the river. After the November uprising, Waleria and Jan Feliks Tarnowski decided to leave the Russian-occupied Warsaw and moved to Dzikowiec. They began restoration of the castle, using the Italian architect Francesco Maria Lanci, who worked on the project in 1834 to 1858, turning the complex in neo-Gothic English style. The castle was highly valued by the Polish nobility, who often visited him, and the Tarnowski family was very fond of the local peasantry, Galician massacre did not take place here.
The January uprising, which began in 1863, was widely supported by local residents, as well as Tarnowskis. Some volunteers crossed the border, weapons, food and medicines were contraband, and the Dominican nuns from Wielowies opened a hospital for the insurgents. After the failed uprising, the state hospital was opened in 1864, with the new building completed by 1884. Tarnobrzeg developed slowly, because in 1887, the railway communication with Dębica and Rozwadow was opened. September 8, 1904, the Bishop of Przemysl Sebastian Pelczar crowned painting of our lady of Dzikow, and the next day, the monument to Bartosz glowacki was opened, with thousands participating in the event. In 1913, opened a new railway station, and in August 1914, the First World war began. Due to the location of Tarnobrzeg, near the Austrian-Russian border, the city has been an area of heavy fighting, and in the fall of 1915, during the advance of the Imperial Russian Army, Warsaw was almost completely destroyed. In October 1918, Polish authorities came to the city, but the beginning of the Second Polish Republic were marred by violence as local revolutionaries created the so-called Republic of Tarnobrzeg. In September 1927, a meeting of the conservative movement took place in Dzikow castle, with Walery Slawek as one of the guests. In December of the same year, was held in the walls of the castle, which killed 9 people of a dangerous fire. In 1929 President Ignacy visited Tarnobrzeg.
On 2 September 1939 the city was bombed by the Luftwaffe, and 13 September, the first Wehrmacht units entered in Tarnobrzeg. Soon came the first Polish clandestine organizations, including the structure of the Union of armed struggle, which later transformed into the home Army AK. The region of Tarnobrzeg AK was known under the code name" Twarog”. Jedrusie, the legendary guerrilla forces, was created by young residents of Tarnobrzeg. The German occupation lasted until 4 August 1944, when the city was captured by the red Army. Soon after, Tarnobrzeg and its district were in the civil war between the Soviets and their Communist allies, and Polish Patriotic groups, led by people like Jerome Dekutowski and Bogacz Kazimierz. The fighting continued until the beginning of 1950-ies.
In 1953, rich in sulfur deposits discovered in the area of Tarnobrzeg Professor Stanislav Pavlovschi. This fact brought far-reaching changes for the town, whose population quickly grew. Newly opened mines in PIASECZNO, Machow and Jeziorko gave jobs to thousands of beginners, which was built on new areas. In 1975, Tarnobrzeg became a place of Poland, but he had to share his status with the other three cities. Tarnobrzeg was the administrative capital of the province, Sandomierz had the status of a cultural capital, and Stalowa Wola was the industrial capital of the regions. In Tarnobrzeska Voivodeship ceased to exist in 1999.