ⓘ Political parties in Russia

Progressive Party

Vermont Progressive Party, USA Anguilla Progressive Party Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic Rally, Niger Australian Progressives Dominica Progressive Party Progressive Party Chile Serbian Progressive Party Oregon Progressive Party, USA Progressive Party of Tanzania – Maendeleo Serbian Progressive Party in Macedonia Melanesian Progressive Party, Vanuatu The Progressives Latvia Sabah Progressive Party, Malaysia Progressive Party of Maldives Jordanian Progressive Party Progressive Party Iceland Martinican Progressive Party, Martinique

Yabloko-United Democrats

Yabloko-United Democrats was a coalition between Yabloko party and the Union of Right Forces formed for the Moscow municipal elections on December 4, 2005. During the campaign the coalition declared its opposition to the policies of President Vladimir Putin and called for the restoration of political and media freedoms, curtailed by the Putin administration. Yabloko-United Democrats won 11% of the vote and became one of only three parties along with United Russia and the Communist Party to enter the new Moscow City Duma. Its deputies in the Duma are Yevgeny Bunimovich Yabloko, Sergei Mitro ...

Party of Russia's Rebirth

The Party of Russias Rebirth is a left-wing political party in Russia led by Gennady Seleznev, former Duma speaker and then member of Communist Party of Russia, and later by the Nationalist writer Georgy Pryakhin. The party took the name of the illegal Russian fascist party, which existed in the USSR, and abroad among the Russian expatriates, in the 1930s. At the last legislative elections, December 7, 2003, the alliance of the Party of Russias Rebirth and the Russian Party of Life party won 1.9% of the popular vote and no seats on the party list ballot, although Seleznev himself narrowly ...

Party of Business

On September 22, 2010, a group of economists and businessmen declared that a new party under the name Party Action would soon be organized. On October 14, 2010, the constituent congress of the Party Action took place in Moscow in a hotel complex "Izmajlovo". 160 delegates from 51 regions of Russia adopted the programme and the charter of the party.

Party of Peace and Unity

Party of Peace and Unity was a socialist party in Russia. It was founded in 1996, uniting several communist groups that opposed president Yeltsins policies. Its leader was Sazhi Umalatova, a Russian politician of Chechen nationality, who was a devoted opponent of Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin. Umalatova supported the August coup in 1991 and the anti-Yeltsin opposition in the October 1993 events. However, she later became an ardent supporter of President Vladimir Putin. At the December 7, 2003 legislative elections, the party won 0.25% of the popular vote and no seats. The party did n ...

People's Freedom Party

The Peoples Freedom Party, or PARNAS, is a Russian liberal democratic political party. The Republican Party of Russia RPR is one of Russia’s oldest political parties. In 2007 the party was denied re-registration and declared to be dissolved by the Russian Supreme Court. It was only after the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the denial of registration was unlawful that it could restore its official registration in May 2012. Today, PARNAS is led by Mikhail Kasyanov and is an associate member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe ALDE.

                                     

ⓘ Political parties in Russia

This article discusses political parties in Russia.

The Russian Federation has a multi-party system. As of 2018 six parties have members in the federal parliament, the State Duma, with one dominant party United Russia.

After the Perestroika reforms in the 1980s Russia had over 100 registered parties, but the people elected to the State Duma represented only a small number of parties. After 2000, during Vladimir Putins first presidency 2000–2008, the number of parties quickly decreased. From 2008 to 2012 there were only seven parties in Russia, and every new attempt to register new, independent parties was blocked. The last-registered party of this period was the government-organized Right Cause registered on 18 February 2009. Before the 2011 parliamentary elections, about 10 opposition parties were denied registration. However, after a series of mass protests and a 2011 European Court decision on the case of the Republican Party of Russia, the law changed and the number of registered parties quickly increased to more than 48 as of December 2012.

                                     

1. History

Party of power

In Russian politics, a "party of power" is a specially established party which unconditionally supports the current president or prime minister in the parliament.

These parties have been considered parties of power:

  • Choice of Russia 1993–1995 and Party of Russian Unity and Accord headed by Sergey Shakhray
  • Our Home – Russia 1995–1999
  • United Russia 2001–present
  • A Just Russia
  • Ivan Rybkin Bloc considered as a potential left "party of power", during 1995 Russian legislative election
  • Interregional Group of Deputies/Democratic Russia 1990–1993, Congress of Peoples Deputies of the Soviet Union/Congress of Peoples Deputies of Russia/Supreme Soviet of Russia
  • Unity 1999–2001/2003
                                     

2. Social composition of voters

According to studies, United Russia voters in 2007 were younger and more market-oriented than the average voter. The partys electorate includes a substantial share of government employees, pensioners and military personnel, who are dependent on the state for their livelihood. Sixty-four percent of United Russia supporters are female. According to researchers, this could be because women place a great value on stability. In the run-up to the 2011 Duma elections, it was reported that support for United Russia was growing among young people.

                                     

3. Registered parties

All parties registered by the Ministry of Justice have the right to participate in any elections all over the country. The list is placed on the Justice Ministry website. In December 2012, there were 48 registered parties in Russia; 6 of them are currently represented in the State Duma as of 2017.

Currently represented in the State Duma

  • Liberal Democratic Party 40
  • Communist Party 42
  • Rodina 1
  • Civic Platform 1
  • United Russia 340
  • A Just Russia 23

Currently represented in regional parliaments

  • Rodina
  • Patriots of Russia
  • Russian Party of Pensioners for Social Justice
  • Communists of Russia
  • Civic Platform
  • Communist Party of Social Justice
  • Party of Growth
  • Yabloko
                                     

4. Historical parties 1992–present

  • Merged into United Russia
  • Unity 1999–2001
  • Fatherland – All Russia 1998–2002
  • Our Home – Russia 1995–2001
  • United Socialist Party of Russia 2003–2008 Социалистическая единая партия России, Sotsialisticheskaya yedinaya partiya Rossii
  • Party of Social Justice 2002–2008 Партия социальной справедливости, Partiya Sotsialnoy Spravedlivosti
  • Merged into A Just Russia
  • Peoples Party of the Russian Federation 2000–2007 Народная партия Российской Федерации, Narodnaya partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii
  • Russian Party of Life 2002–2006 Российская партия жизни, Rossiyskaya Partiya Zhizni
  • Other
  • Party of Peace and Unity 1996–2008 Российская политическая партия Мира и Единства, Rossiyskaya politicheskaya partiya Mira i Edinstva
  • Merged into Patriots of Russia
  • Christian Democratic Party of Russia Российская Христианско-Демократическая партия
  • Future of Russia–New Names 1993
  • Party of Workers Self-Government 1995–1996
  • Dignity and Charity 1993
  • Russian Democratic Reform Movement 1991–1993
  • Derzhava Russian party 1994
  • Russian Communist Workers Party 1991–2001
  • Eurasia Party Евразия, Yevraziya
  • Civic Union Russia 1992–1993
  • Beer Lovers Party 1993–1998 Партия любителей пива, Partia lûbitelej piva
  • Democratic Choice of Russia 1993–2001
  • Party of Russian Unity and Accord 1992–1995
  • Conservative Party of Russia Консервативная партия России
  • Communist Party of the Soviet Union Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза, KPSS 92
  • Green Alternative Зелёная Альтернатива
  • Social Democratic Party of Russia Социал-демократическая партия России, Social-Demokraticheskaya partiya Rossii
  • Russian Section of the Committee for a Workers International Социалистическое Сопротивление
  • Green Russia Зеленая Россия 2005–2006
  • Conceptual Party Unity 2000–2007 Yedineniye
  • Women of Russia party 1993–1999
  • Peoples Union 2001–2008Народный Союз, Narodnyi Soyuz


                                     

4.1. Historical parties 1992–present Banned parties in Russia

  • National Bolshevik Party Национал-большевистская партия, Natsional-bolshevitskaya partiya
  • Hizb ut-Tahrir Хизб ут-Тахрир
  • Communist Party of the Soviet Union
                                     

5. Soviet parties, 1917–1992

  • Group of Democratic Centralism
  • Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1912–1991 Коммунисти́ческая Партия Сове́тского Сою́за, Kommunisticeskaja Partija Sovetskogo Soujuza. Factions
  • Left Communists
  • Workers Opposition
  • Right Opposition
  • Anti-Party Group
  • Left Opposition
  • United Opposition
  • Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union 1991–1992


                                     

6. Parties of the Russian Empire, 1721–1917

  • Party of Democratic Reform 1906–1907
  • Socialist-Revolutionary Party 1902–1918 Партия Социалистов-революционеров, Partija Socialistov-revoljucionerov
  • Trudoviks
  • Constitutional Democratic Party 1905–1917 Российская Конституционно-демократическая партия, Rossiyskaya Konstitutsionno-demokraticheskaya partiya
  • Left Socialist-Revolutionaries
  • Union of October 17 1905–1917
  • Yedinstvo
  • Mensheviks
  • Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Росси́йская Социал-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Партия, Rossijskaja Social-demokrasticeskaja Rabocaja Partija. Factions
  • Mezhraiontsy
  • Bolsheviks
  • Popular Socialists
  • Party of Return to Serfdom
  • Union of the Muslims of Russia
  • Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania
  • Union of the Russian People
  • General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia
  • Polish Socialist Party
  • Jewish Socialist Workers Party


                                     

7. Other historical parties

  • Pamyat Память, Pamyat
  • Union of Social Democrats Союз социал-демократов
  • Russian Movement
  • Peoples National Party Народная национальная партия, Narodnaya natsionalnaya partiya
  • Russian Section of the Committee for a Workers International Социалистическое Сопротивление
  • Jewish Social Democratic Labour Party Poalei Zion, a 1906–1928 Zionist socialist political party in Russia
  • Russian National Unity Русское Национальное Единство, Russkoye Natsionalnoye Yedinstvo
  • Russian Maoist Party Российская маоистская партия, Rossiyskaya maoistskaya partiya
  • Russian National Socialist Party previously Russian National Union Русская Национальная Социалистическая Партия, Russkaya Natsionalnaya Socialisticheskaya partiya
  • For Holy Russia За Русь Святую, Za Rus’ Svyatuyu
  • Communists of Russia Коммунисты России