ⓘ Pipilo

                                     

ⓘ Pipilo

Pipilo is a genus of birds in the family Passerellidae. It is one of two genera of birds usually identified as towhees.

The genus Pipilo was introduced by the French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in 1816 with the eastern towhee as the type species. The name Pipilo is New Latin for "bunting" from pipilare "to chirp".

There has been considerable debate over the taxonomy of towhees in recent years. Two species complexes have been identified, the rufous-sided complex, and the brown towhee complex. The distinction of species within these is uncertain and opinions have differed over the years. Modern authorities distinguish all four species in the brown towhee complex, though M. fuscus and M. crissalis were formerly treated as a single species. Hybrids are frequent between some of the species, particularly between the Mexican races of P. maculatus olive-backed towhee, P. maculatus macronyx and P. ocai.

                                     
  • WATER ECONOMY, AND METABOLISM OF THE BROWN AND ABERT TOWHEES, PIPILO FUSCUS SENICULA AND PIPILO ABERTI DUMETICOLUS. University of California, Los Angeles
  • The green - tailed towhee Pipilo chlorurus is the smallest towhee, but is still one of the larger members of the American sparrow family Passerellidae
  • The Bermuda towhee Pipilo naufragus is an extinct passerine of the towhee genus Pipilo that was confined to Bermuda. It was a large member of the genus
  • The spotted towhee Pipilo maculatus is a large New World sparrow. The taxonomy of the towhees has been debated in recent decades, and until 1995 this
  • The collared towhee Pipilo ocai is a species of bird in the Passerellidae family that is endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical
  • The eastern towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus is a large New World sparrow. The taxonomy of the towhees has been under debate in recent decades, and formerly
  • A towhee is any one of a number of species of birds in the genus Pipilo or Melozone within the family Passerellidae which also includes American sparrows
  • albicollis Genus Pipilo Green - tailed towhee, Pipilo chlorurus Collared towhee, Pipilo ocai Rufous - sided towhees: Eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
  • CRC Press 1992 ISBN 978 - 0 - 8493 - 4258 - 5. BirdLife International 2004 Pipilo fuscus IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004. Retrieved 10 May
  • L. Purcell, R. R. Johnson, and L. T. Haight. 2002. California Towhee Pipilo crissalis In The Birds of North America, No. 632 A. Poole and F. Gill
  • The rufous - sided towhee has been split into the following species: Eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus Spotted towhee, Pipilo maculatus
  • revision of two historically problematic songbird clades: Aimophila and Pipilo PDF Journal of Avian Biology. 40 2 206 216. doi: 10.1111 j.1600 - 048X