ⓘ Enteroscopy

                                     

ⓘ Enteroscopy

Enteroscopy is the procedure of using an endoscope for the direct visualization of the small bowel. Etymologically, the word could potentially refer to any bowel endoscopy, but idiomatically it is conventionally restricted to small bowel endoscopy, in distinction from colonoscopy, which is large bowel endoscopy. Various types of enteroscopy exist, as follows:

  • Double-balloon enteroscopy. (Двухбаллонная энтероскопия)
  • Video chip enteroscopy. (Видео чип энтероскопия)
  • Single-balloon enteroscopy. (Один-баллонная энтероскопия)
  • Spiral enteroscopy. (Спиральная энтероскопия)
  • Wireless endoscopy. (Беспроводной эндоскопии)
  • Capsule endoscopy. (Капсульная эндоскопия)

In the small intestine can often be the source of pathology, endoscopy of the small intestine can be a useful diagnostic and therapeutic technique. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, also known as upper endoscopy, receives the first segment of the small intestine, the duodenum, but in the next two, jejunum and ileum, require other methods. Visualization of the small bowel has long been a challenge to gastroenterologists due to the physical difficulties, to reach more distal regions of the small intestine. With the emergence of new forms of enteroscopy, such as double-type balloon, visualizing the whole path is finally a reality at least in some cases, although it is still technically difficult.

Traditional gastroscope, can do visualization of the proximal and distal duodenum in the hands of experienced clinicians-endoscopists, but is limited because of the length of the tool. Children of colonoscopes or enteroscopes are sometimes selected which are much longer than a standard gastroscope can visualize the proximal jejunum. This technique is called push enteroscopy. Due to the length of the small bowel, averaging 4-6 meters in the adult, push enteroscopy is still not valid to adequately visualize large portions of the small intestine.

Wireless capsule endoscopy is an endoscopic exam to visualize the small intestine. 11 x 26 mm size of pill camera swallowed by the patient and about 8 hours of video is transmitted wirelessly to the receiver worn by the patient. The procedure is painless, well tolerated and has a very high accuracy. It is limited by the inability to obtain a biopsy, and therefore is purely diagnostic.

New methods, including single and double balloon endoscopy was developed to overcome some of these problems, but have limitations for the duration of the procedure and the need for deep sedation or General anesthesia. Spiral enteroscopy is a new method that uses an overtube with raised spirals affixed on enteroscope that is rotated in advance the enteroscope deep into the small intestine. Each of these 3 platforms enteroscopy provides the same accuracy and efficiency, but not widespread.