ⓘ List of cattle breeds

                                     

ⓘ List of cattle breeds

Over 1000 breeds of cattle are recognized worldwide, some of which adapted to the local climate, others which were bred by humans for specialized uses.

Cattle breeds fall into two main types, which are regarded as either two closely related species, or two subspecies of one species. Bos indicus or Bos taurus indicus cattle, commonly called zebu, are adapted to hot climates and originated in the tropical parts of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa, India, China, and Southeast Asia. Bos taurus or Bos taurus taurus, typically referred to as "taurine" cattle, are generally adapted to cooler climates and include almost all cattle breeds originating from Europe, the Mediterranean region, and northern Asia. Both species were likely present since ancient times in northern Africa and the Middle East, where both natural and human-caused hybridization likely occurred. Today, Taurus/indicus hybrids are widely bred in many warmer regions, combining characteristics of both the ancestral types such as the Sanga cattle of Africa, or Brangus in warmer regions of the United States.

In some parts of the world further species of cattle are found both as wild and domesticated animals, and some of these are related so closely to taurine and indicus cattle that interspecies hybrids have been bred. Examples include the Dwarf Lulu cattle of the mountains of Nepal with yak blood, the Beefalo of North America with bison genes, the Selembu breed of India and Bhutan with gayal genes. The Madura breed of Indonesia may have banteng in its parentage. In addition to these fertile hybrids, there are infertile crossings such as the male Dzo of Nepal, a cattle-yak crossing which is bred for agricultural work - like the mule they have to be continually bred from the parent species.