ⓘ Airport

Pulkovo Airport

Pulkovo Airport is an international airport serving St. Petersburg, Russia. It consists of one terminal, Terminal 1 which is located 23 km south of the city centre. The airport serves as a hub for Aeroflot and as focus city for Smartavia. Pulkovo International Airport is responsible for serving the citizens of Saint Petersburg, as well as the Leningrad Oblast: a total of 6.120.000 people.

Aktau Airport

Aktau International Airport is an international airport in Mangystau Region, Kazakhstan. It is the primary international airport serving Aktau. The airport is the eighth-busiest international air passenger gateway into Central Asia, the 50th-busiest airport in the Post-Soviet states, the third-busiest airport in Kazakhstan. Aktau International Airport is located 21 km 13 mi northwest of the city of Aktau. The airport features one passenger terminal and one runway. It serves as a focus city for SCAT Airlines. The facility opened in 1983 as Shevchenko-Central and after the collapse of the So ...

Almaty International Airport

Almaty International Airport is the largest international airport in Kazakhstan. It is about 15 km northeast of Almaty, the countrys largest city and commercial capital. Almaty airport accounts for half of passenger traffic and 68% of cargo traffic to Kazakhstan. In 2012, the airport handled 4.003.004 passengers, including 1.997.570 arriving passengers, and 2.005.434 departing passengers.

Brussels Airport

Brussels Airport or Luchthaven Zaventem) is an international airport 6.5 NM northeast of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. In 2019, more than 26 million passengers arrived or departed at Brussels Airport, making it the 24th busiest airport in Europe. It is located in the municipality of Zaventem in the Province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is home to around 260 companies, together directly employing 20.000 people and serves as the home base for Brussels Airlines and TUI fly Belgium. The company operating the airport is known as The Brussels Airport Company N.V./S ...

Zhukovsky International Airport

Zhukovsky International Airport, formerly known as Ramenskoye Airport or Zhukovsky Airfield is an international airport, located in Moscow Oblast, Russia 36 km southeast of central Moscow, in the town of Zhukovsky, a few kilometers southeast of the old Bykovo Airport.

Cape Town International Airport

Cape Town International Airport is the primary airport serving the city of Cape Town, and is the second-busiest airport in South Africa and fourth-busiest in Africa. Located approximately 20 kilometres from the city centre, the airport was opened in 1954 to replace Cape Towns previous airport, Wingfield Aerodrome. Cape Town International Airport is the only airport in the Cape Town metropolitan area that offers scheduled passenger services. The airport has domestic and international terminals, linked by a common central terminal. The airport has direct flights from South Africas other two ...

                                     

ⓘ Airport

An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, and a control tower. An airport consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad, and often includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers, hangars and terminals. Larger airports may have airport aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, and emergency services. In some countries, the US in particular, they also typically have one or more fixed-base operators, serving general aviation.

An airport solely serving helicopters is called a heliport. An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base. Such a base typically includes a stretch of open water for takeoffs and landings, and seaplane docks for tying-up. Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in USA is the busiest and biggest airport in the world.

An international airport has additional facilities for customs and passport control as well as incorporating all the aforementioned elements. Such airports rank among the most complex and largest of all built typologies with 15 of the top 50 buildings by floor area being airport terminals.

                                     

1. Terminology

The terms aerodrome, airfield, and airstrip may also be used to refer to airports, and the terms heliport, seaplane base, and STOLport refer to airports dedicated exclusively to helicopters, seaplanes, or short take-off and landing aircraft.

In colloquial use in certain environments, the terms airport and aerodrome are often interchanged. However, in general, the term airport may imply or confer a certain stature upon the aviation facility that other aerodromes may not have achieved. In some jurisdictions, airport is a legal term of art reserved exclusively for those aerodromes certified or licensed as airports by the relevant national aviation authority after meeting specified certification criteria or regulatory requirements.

That is to say, all airports are aerodromes, but not all aerodromes are airports. In jurisdictions where there is no legal distinction between aerodrome and airport, which term to use in the name of an aerodrome may be a commercial decision. In United States technical/legal usage, landing area is used instead of aerodrome, and airport means "a landing area used regularly by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo".

                                     

2. Management

Smaller or less-developed airfields, which represent the vast majority, often have a single runway shorter than 1.000 m 3.300 ft. Larger airports for airline flights generally have paved runways of 2.000 m 6.600 ft or longer. Skyline Airport in Inkom, Idaho has a runway that is only 122 m 400 ft long.

In the United States, the minimum dimensions for dry, hard landing fields are defined by the FAR Landing And Takeoff Field Lengths. These include considerations for safety margins during landing and takeoff.

The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bamda Airport in China. It has a length of 5.500 m 18.045 ft. The worlds widest paved runway is at Ulyanovsk Vostochny Airport in Russia and is 105 m 344 ft wide.

As of 2009, the CIA stated that there were approximately 44.000 ". airports or airfields recognizable from the air" around the world, including 15.095 in the US, the US having the most in the world.

                                     

2.1. Management Airport ownership and operation

Most of the worlds large airports are owned by local, regional, or national government bodies who then lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airports operation. For example, in the United Kingdom the state-owned British Airports Authority originally operated eight of the nations major commercial airports – it was subsequently privatized in the late 1980s, and following its takeover by the Spanish Ferrovial consortium in 2006, has been further divested and downsized to operating just Heathrow now. Germanys Frankfurt Airport is managed by the quasi-private firm Fraport. While in India GMR Group operates, through joint ventures, Indira Gandhi International Airport and Rajiv Gandhi International Airport. Bengaluru International Airport and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport are controlled by GVK Group. The rest of Indias airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India. In Pakistan nearly all civilian airports are owned and operated by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority except for Sialkot International Airport which has the distinction of being the first privately owned public airport in Pakistan and South Asia.

In the United States, commercial airports are generally operated directly by government entities or government-created airport authorities also known as port authorities, such as the Los Angeles World Airports authority that oversees several airports in the Greater Los Angeles area, including Los Angeles International Airport.

In Canada, the federal authority, Transport Canada, divested itself of all but the remotest airports in 1999/2000. Now most airports in Canada are owned and operated by individual legal authorities or are municipally owned.

Many U.S. airports still lease part or all of their facilities to outside firms, who operate functions such as retail management and parking. In the U.S., all commercial airport runways are certified by the FAA under the Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 139, "Certification of Commercial Service Airports" but maintained by the local airport under the regulatory authority of the FAA.

Despite the reluctance to privatize airports in the US despite the FAA sponsoring a privatization program since 1996, the government-owned, contractor-operated GOCO arrangement is the standard for the operation of commercial airports in the rest of the world.



                                     

2.2. Management Airport funding

The Airport & Airway Trust Fund AATF was created by the Airport and Airway Development in 1970 which finances aviation programs in the United States. Airport Improvement Program AIP, Facilities and Equipment F&E, and Research, Engineering, and Development RE&D are the three major accounts of Federal Aviation Administration which are financed by the AATF, as well as pays for the FAAs Operation and Maintenance O&M account. The funding of these accounts are dependent on the taxes the airports generate of revenues. Passenger tickets, fuel, and cargo tax are the taxes that are paid by the passengers and airlines help fund these accounts.

                                     

2.3. Management Airport revenue

Airports revenues are divided into three major parts: Aeronautical revenue, Non-aeronautical revenue, and Non-operating revenue. Aeronautical revenue makes up 56%, Non-aeronautical revenue makes up 40%, and Non-operating revenue makes up 4% of the total revenue of airports.

                                     

2.4. Management Aeronautical revenue

Aeronautical revenue are generated through the airline rents, landing fees, passenger service fees, parking fees and hangar fees. Landing fees are charged per aircraft for landing the airplane in the airport property. Landing fees are calculated through the landing weight and the size of the aircraft which varies but most of the airports have a fixed rate and a charge extra for extra weight. Passenger service fees are charges per passengers for the facilities used on a flight like water, food, wifi and shows which is paid while paying for an airline ticket. Aircraft parking is also a major revenue source for airports. Aircraft are parked for a certain amount of time before or after takeoff and have to pay to park there. Every airport has his own rates of parking but at John F Kennedy airport in New York charges $45 per hour for the plane of 100.000 pounds and the price increases with weight.



                                     

2.5. Management Non-aeronautical revenue

Non-aeronautical revenue is gained through things other than aircraft operations. It includes lease revenue from compatible land-use development, non-aeronautical building leases, retail and concession sales, rental car operations, parking and in-airport advertising. Concession revenue is one big part of non-aeronautical revenue airports makes through Duty Free, Bookstores, Restaurants and money exchange. Car parking is a growing source of revenue for airports, as more people park in the parking facilities of the airport. OHare International Airport in Chicago charges $2 per hour for every car.

                                     

2.6. Management Landside and airside areas

Airports are divided into landside and airside areas. The landside area is open to the public, while access to the airside area is tightly controlled. The airside area includes all parts of the airport around the aircraft, and the parts of the buildings that are accessible only to passengers and staff. Passengers and staff must be checked by security before being permitted to enter the airside area. Conversely, passengers arriving from an international flight must pass through border control and customs to access the landside area, where they can exit the airport. Many major airports will issue a secure keycard called an airside pass to employees, as some roles require employees to frequently move back and forth between landside and airside as part of their duties.

                                     

3. Facilities

A terminal is a building with passenger facilities. Small airports have one terminal. Large ones often have multiple terminals, though some large airports like Amsterdam Airport Schiphol still have one terminal. The terminal has a series of gates, which provide passengers with access to the plane.

The following facilities are essential for departing passengers:

  • Check-in facilities, including a baggage drop-off
  • Waiting areas
  • Gates
  • Security clearance gates
  • Passport control for some international flights

The following facilities are essential for arriving passengers:

  • A landside meeting place
  • Passport control international arrivals only
  • Customs international arrivals only
  • Baggage reclaim facilities, often in the form of a carousel

For both sets of passengers, there must be a link between the passenger facilities and the aircraft, such as jet bridges or airstairs. There also needs to be a baggage handling system, to transport baggage from the baggage drop-off to departing planes, and from arriving planes to the baggage reclaim.

The area where the aircraft park to load passengers and baggage is known as an apron or ramp or incorrectly, "the tarmac".

Airports with international flights have customs and immigration facilities. However, as some countries have agreements that allow travel between them without customs and immigrations, such facilities are not a definitive need for an international airport. International flights often require a higher level of physical security, although in recent years, many countries have adopted the same level of security for international and domestic travel.

"Floating airports" are being designed which could be located out at sea and which would use designs such as pneumatic stabilized platform technology.



                                     

3.1. Facilities Airport security

Airport security normally requires baggage checks, metal screenings of individual persons, and rules against any object that could be used as a weapon. Since the September 11 attacks and the Real ID Act of 2005, airport security has dramatically increased and got tighter and stricter than ever before.

                                     

3.2. Facilities Products and services

Most major airports provide commercial outlets for products and services. Most of these companies, many of which are internationally known brands, are located within the departure areas. These include clothing boutiques and restaurants and in the US amounted to $4.2 billion in 2015. Prices charged for items sold at these outlets are generally higher than those outside the airport. However, some airports now regulate costs to keep them comparable to "street prices". This term is misleading as prices often match the manufacturers suggested retail price MSRP but are almost never discounted.

Apart from major fast food chains, some airport restaurants offer regional cuisine specialties for those in transit so that they may sample local food or culture without leaving the airport.

Some airport structures include on-site hotels built within or attached to a terminal building. Airport hotels have grown popular due to their convenience for transient passengers and easy accessibility to the airport terminal. Many airport hotels also have agreements with airlines to provide overnight lodging for displaced passengers.

Major airports in such countries as Russia and Japan offer miniature sleeping units within the airport that are available for rent by the hour. The smallest type is the capsule hotel popular in Japan. A slightly larger variety is known as a sleep box. An even larger type is provided by the company YOTEL.



                                     

3.3. Facilities Premium and VIP services

Airports may also contain premium and VIP services. The premium and VIP services may include express check-in and dedicated check-in counters. These services are usually reserved for First and Business class passengers, premium frequent flyers, and members of the airlines clubs. Premium services may sometimes be open to passengers who are members of a different airlines frequent flyer program. This can sometimes be part of a reciprocal deal, as when multiple airlines are part of the same alliance, or as a ploy to attract premium customers away from rival airlines.

Sometimes these premium services will be offered to a non-premium passenger if the airline has made a mistake in handling of the passenger, such as unreasonable delays or mishandling of checked baggage.

Airline lounges frequently offer free or reduced cost food, as well as alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Lounges themselves typically have seating, showers, quiet areas, televisions, computer, Wi-Fi and Internet access, and power outlets that passengers may use for their electronic equipment. Some airline lounges employ baristas, bartenders and gourmet chefs.

Airlines sometimes operate multiple lounges within the one airport terminal allowing ultra-premium customers, such as first class customers, additional services, which are not available to other premium customers. Multiple lounges may also prevent overcrowding of the lounge facilities.



                                     

3.4. Facilities Cargo and freight service

In addition to people, airports move cargo around the clock. Cargo airlines often have their own on-site and adjacent infrastructure to transfer parcels between ground and air.

Cargo Terminal Facilities are areas where international airports export cargo has to be stored after customs clearance and prior to loading on the aircraft. Similarly import cargo that is offloaded needs to be in bond before the consignee decides to take delivery. Areas have to be kept aside for examination of export and import cargo by the airport authorities. Designated areas or sheds may be given to airlines or freight forward ring agencies.

Every cargo terminal has a landside and an airside. The landside is where the exporters and importers through either their agents or by themselves deliver or collect shipments while the airside is where loads are moved to or from the aircraft. In addition cargo terminals are divided into distinct areas – export, import and interline or transshipment.

                                     

3.5. Facilities Access and onward travel

Airports require parking lots, for passengers who may leave the cars at the airport for a long period of time. Large airports will also have car rental firms, taxi ranks, bus stops and sometimes a train station.

Many large airports are located near railway trunk routes for seamless connection of multimodal transport, for instance Frankfurt Airport, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, London Heathrow Airport, Tokyo Haneda Airport, Tokyo Narita Airport, London Gatwick Airport and London Stansted Airport. It is also common to connect an airport and a city with rapid transit, light rail lines or other non-road public transport systems. Some examples of this would include the AirTrain JFK at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Link Light Rail that runs from the heart of downtown Seattle to Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, and the Silver Line at Bostons Logan International Airport by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority MBTA. Such a connection lowers risk of missed flights due to traffic congestion. Large airports usually have access also through controlled-access highways freeways or motorways from which motor vehicles enter either the departure loop or the arrival loop.

                                     

3.6. Facilities Internal transport

The distances passengers need to move within a large airport can be substantial. It is common for airports to provide moving walkways, buses, and rail transport systems. Some airports like Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport and London Stansted Airport have a transit system that connects some of the gates to a main terminal. Airports with more than one terminal have a transit system to connect the terminals together, such as John F. Kennedy International Airport, Mexico City International Airport and London Gatwick Airport.

                                     

4. Airport operations

There are three types of surface that aircraft operate on:

  • Taxiways, where planes "taxi" transfer to and from a runway
  • Runways, for takeoff and landing
  • Apron or ramp: a surface where planes are parked, loaded, unloaded or refuelled.
                                     

4.1. Airport operations Air traffic control

Air traffic control ATC is the task of managing aircraft movements and making sure they are safe, orderly and expeditious. At the largest airports, air traffic control is a series of highly complex operations that requires managing frequent traffic that moves in all three dimensions.

A "towered" or "controlled" airport has a control tower where the air traffic controllers are based. Pilots are required to maintain two-way radio communication with the controllers, and to acknowledge and comply with their instructions. A "non-towered" airport has no operating control tower and therefore two-way radio communications are not required, though it is good operating practice for pilots to transmit their intentions on the airports common traffic advisory frequency CTAF for the benefit of other aircraft in the area. The CTAF may be a Universal Integrated Community UNICOM, MULTICOM, Flight Service Station FSS, or tower frequency.

The majority of the worlds airports are small facilities without a tower. Not all towered airports have 24/7 ATC operations. In those cases, non-towered procedures apply when the tower is not in use, such as at night. Non-towered airports come under area en-route control. Remote and virtual tower RVT is a system in which ATC is handled by controllers who are not present at the airport itself.

Air traffic control responsibilities at airports are usually divided into at least two main areas: ground and tower, though a single controller may work both stations. The busiest airports may subdivide responsibilities further, with clearance delivery, apron control, and/or other specialized ATC stations.

                                     

4.2. Airport operations Ground control

Ground control is responsible for directing all ground traffic in designated "movement areas", except the traffic on runways. This includes planes, baggage trains, snowplows, grass cutters, fuel trucks, stair trucks, airline food trucks, conveyor belt vehicles and other vehicles. Ground Control will instruct these vehicles on which taxiways to use, which runway they will use in the case of planes, where they will park, and when it is safe to cross runways. When a plane is ready to takeoff it will be turned over to Tower Control. Conversely, after a plane has landed it will depart the runway and be "handed over" from Tower to Ground Control.

                                     

4.3. Airport operations Tower control

Tower control is responsible for aircraft on the runway and in the controlled airspace immediately surrounding the airport. Tower controllers may use radar to locate an aircrafts position in three-dimensional space, or they may rely on pilot position reports and visual observation. They coordinate the sequencing of aircraft in the traffic pattern and direct aircraft on how to safely join and leave the circuit. Aircraft which are only passing through the airspace must also contact Tower Control to be sure they remain clear of other traffic.

                                     

4.4. Airport operations Navigational aids

There are a number of aids, both visual and electronic, though not at all airports. A visual approach slope indicator VASI helps pilots fly the approach for landing. Some airports are equipped with a VHF omnidirectional range VOR to help pilots find the direction to the airport. VORs are often accompanied by a distance measuring equipment DME to determine the distance to the VOR. VORs are also located off airports, where they serve to provide airways for aircraft to navigate upon. In poor weather, pilots will use an instrument landing system ILS to find the runway and fly the correct approach, even if they cannot see the ground. The number of instrument approaches based on the use of the Global Positioning System GPS is rapidly increasing and may eventually become the primary means for instrument landings.

Larger airports sometimes offer precision approach radar PAR, but these systems are more common at military air bases than civilian airports. The aircrafts horizontal and vertical movement is tracked via radar, and the controller tells the pilot his position relative to the approach slope. Once the pilots can see the runway lights, they may continue with a visual landing.

                                     

4.5. Airport operations Taxiway signs

Airport guidance signs provide direction and information to taxiing aircraft and airport vehicles. Smaller aerodromes may have few or no signs, relying instead on diagrams and charts.

                                     

4.6. Airport operations Lighting

Many airports have lighting that help guide planes using the runways and taxiways at night or in rain or fog.

On runways, green lights indicate the beginning of the runway for landing, while red lights indicate the end of the runway. Runway edge lighting consists of white lights spaced out on both sides of the runway, indicating the edges. Some airports have more complicated lighting on the runways including lights that run down the centerline of the runway and lights that help indicate the approach an approach lighting system, or ALS. Low-traffic airports may use pilot controlled lighting to save electricity and staffing costs.

Along taxiways, blue lights indicate the taxiways edge, and some airports have embedded green lights that indicate the centerline.

                                     

4.7. Airport operations Weather observations

Weather observations at the airport are crucial to safe takeoffs and landings. In the US and Canada, the vast majority of airports, large and small, will either have some form of automated airport weather station, whether an AWOS, ASOS, or AWSS, a human observer or a combination of the two. These weather observations, predominantly in the METAR format, are available over the radio, through automatic terminal information service ATIS, via the ATC or the flight service station.

Planes take-off land into the wind in order to achieve maximum performance. Because pilots need instantaneous information during landing, a windsock can also be kept in view of the runway. Aviation windsocks are made with lightweight material, withstand strong winds and some are lit up after dark or in foggy weather. Because visibility of windsocks is limited, often multiple glow-orange windsocks are placed on both sides of the runway.

                                     

4.8. Airport operations Airport ground crew ground handling

Most airports have groundcrew handling the loading and unloading of passengers, crew, baggage and other services. Some groundcrew are linked to specific airlines operating at the airport.

Among the vehicles that serve an airliner on the ground are:

  • A cleaning service.
  • A catering service to deliver food and drinks for a flight.
  • A toilet waste truck to empty the tank which holds the waste from the toilets in the aircraft.
  • A vehicle to transport luggage to and from the terminal.
  • A tow tractor to move the aircraft in and out of the berth.
  • A ground power unit for supplying electricity. As the engines will be switched off, they will not be generating electricity as they do in flight.
  • A jet bridge in some airports or stairs unit to allow passengers to embark and disembark.
  • A refueling vehicle. The fuel may come from a tanker, or from underground fuel tanks.
  • A water truck to fill the water tanks of the aircraft.
  • A conveyor belt unit for loading and unloading luggage.

The length of time an aircraft remains on the ground in between consecutive flights is known as "turnaround time". Airlines pay great attention to minimizing turnaround times in an effort to keep aircraft utilization flying time high, with times scheduled as low as 25 minutes for jet aircraft operated by low-cost carriers on narrow-body aircraft.

                                     

4.9. Airport operations Maintenance management

Like industrial equipment or facility management, airports require tailor-made maintenance management due to their complexity. With many tangible assets spread over a large area in different environments, these infrastructures must therefore effectively monitor these assets and store spare parts in order to maintain them at an optimal level of service.

To manage these airport assets, several solutions are competing for the market: CMMS computerized maintenance management system predominate, and mainly enable a companys maintenance activity to be monitored, planned, recorded and rationalized.

                                     

4.10. Airport operations Safety management

Aviation safety is an important concern in the operation of an airport, and almost every airfield includes equipment and procedures for handling emergency situations. Airport crash tender crews are equipped for dealing with airfield accidents, crew and passenger extractions, and the hazards of highly flammable aviation fuel. The crews are also trained to deal with situations such as bomb threats, hijacking, and terrorist activities.

Hazards to aircraft include debris, nesting birds, and reduced friction levels due to environmental conditions such as ice, snow, or rain. Part of runway maintenance is airfield rubber removal which helps maintain friction levels. The fields must be kept clear of debris using cleaning equipment so that loose material does not become a projectile and enter an engine duct see foreign object damage. In adverse weather conditions, ice and snow clearing equipment can be used to improve traction on the landing strip. For waiting aircraft, equipment is used to spray special deicing fluids on the wings.

Many airports are built near open fields or wetlands. These tend to attract bird populations, which can pose a hazard to aircraft in the form of bird strikes. Airport crews often need to discourage birds from taking up residence.

Some airports are located next to parks, golf courses, or other low-density uses of land. Other airports are located near densely populated urban or suburban areas.

An airport can have areas where collisions between aircraft on the ground tend to occur. Records are kept of any incursions where aircraft or vehicles are in an inappropriate location, allowing these "hot spots" to be identified. These locations then undergo special attention by transportation authorities such as the FAA in the US and airport administrators.

During the 1980s, a phenomenon known as microburst became a growing concern due to aircraft accidents caused by microburst wind shear, such as Delta Air Lines Flight 191. Microburst radar was developed as an aid to safety during landing, giving two to five minutes warning to aircraft in the vicinity of the field of a microburst event.

Some airfields now have a special surface known as soft concrete at the end of the runway stopway or blastpad that behaves somewhat like styrofoam, bringing the plane to a relatively rapid halt as the material disintegrates. These surfaces are useful when the runway is located next to a body of water or other hazard, and prevent the planes from overrunning the end of the field.

Airports often have on-site firefighters to respond to emergencies. These use specialized vehicles, known as airport crash tenders.



                                     

5. Environmental concerns and sustainability

Aircraft noise is a major cause of noise disturbance to residents living near airports. Sleep can be affected if the airports operate night and early morning flights. Aircraft noise occurs not only from take-offs and landings, but also from ground operations including maintenance and testing of aircraft. Noise can have other noise health effects. Other noise and environmental concerns are vehicle traffic causing noise and pollution on roads leading the airport.

The construction of new airports or addition of runways to existing airports, is often resisted by local residents because of the effect on countryside, historical sites, local flora and fauna. Due to the risk of collision between birds and aircraft, large airports undertake population control programs where they frighten or shoot birds.

The construction of airports has been known to change local weather patterns. For example, because they often flatten out large areas, they can be susceptible to fog in areas where fog rarely forms. In addition, they generally replace trees and grass with pavement, they often change drainage patterns in agricultural areas, leading to more flooding, run-off and erosion in the surrounding land.

Some of the airport administrations prepare and publish annual environmental reports in order to show how they consider these environmental concerns in airport management issues and how they protect environment from airport operations. These reports contain all environmental protection measures performed by airport administration in terms of water, air, soil and noise pollution, resource conservation and protection of natural life around the airport.

A 2019 report from the Cooperative Research Programs of Transportation Research Board showed all airports have a role to play in advancing greenhouse gas GHG reduction initiatives. Small airports have demonstrated leadership by using their less complex organizational structure to implement newer technologies and to serve as a providing ground for their feasibility. Large airports have the economic stability and staff resources necessary to grow in-house expertise and fund comprehensive new programs.

A growing number of airports are installing solar photovoltaic arrays to offset their electricity use. The National Renewable Energy Lab has shown this can be done safely.

The worlds first airport to be fully powered by solar energy is located at Kochi, India. Another airport known for considering environmental parameters is the Seymour Airport at Galapagos Islands.

                                     

6. Military air base

An airbase, sometimes referred to as an air station or airfield, provides basing and support of military aircraft. Some airbases, known as military airports, provide facilities similar to their civilian counterparts. For example, RAF Brize Norton in the UK has a terminal which caters to passengers for the Royal Air Forces scheduled flights to the Falkland Islands. Some airbases are co-located with civilian airports, sharing the same ATC facilities, runways, taxiways and emergency services, but with separate terminals, parking areas and hangars. Bardufoss Airport, Bardufoss Air Station in Norway and Pune Airport in India are examples of this.

An aircraft carrier is a warship that functions as a mobile airbase. Aircraft carriers allow a naval force to project air power without having to depend on local bases for land-based aircraft. After their development in World War I, aircraft carriers replaced the battleship as the centrepiece of a modern fleet during World War II.

                                     

7. Airport designation and naming

Airports are uniquely represented by their IATA airport code and ICAO airport code.

Most airport names include the location. Many airport names honour a public figure, commonly a politician, a monarch e.g. Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, King Abdulaziz International Airport, a cultural leader or a prominent figure in aviation history of the region e.g. Sydney Kingsford Smith Airport, sometimes even famous writers e.g. Allama Iqbal International Airport and explorers e.g. Venice Marco Polo Airport.

Some airports have unofficial names, possibly so widely circulated that its official name is little used or even known.

Some airport names include the word "International" to indicate their ability to handle international air traffic. This includes some airports that do not have scheduled international airline services e.g. Albany International Airport.

                                     

8. History and development

The earliest aircraft takeoff and landing sites were grassy fields. The plane could approach at any angle that provided a favorable wind direction. A slight improvement was the dirt-only field, which eliminated the drag from grass. However, these functioned well only in dry conditions. Later, concrete surfaces would allow landings regardless of meteorological conditions.

The title of "worlds oldest airport" is disputed. College Park Airport in Maryland, US, established in 1909 by Wilbur Wright, is generally agreed to be the worlds oldest continuously operating airfield, although it serves only general aviation traffic.

Beijing Nanyuan Airport in China, which was built to accommodate planes in 1904, and airships in 1907, opened in 1910. It was in operation until September 2019. Pearson Field Airport in Vancouver, Washington, United States, was built to accommodate planes in 1905 and airships in 1911, and is still in use as of January 2020.

Hamburg Airport opened in January 1911, making it the oldest commercial airport in the world which is still in operation. Bremen Airport opened in 1913 and remains in use, although it served as an American military field between 1945 and 1949. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol opened on September 16, 1916, as a military airfield, but has accepted civil aircraft only since December 17, 1920, allowing Sydney Airport in Sydney, Australia - which started operations in January 1920 - to claim to be one of the worlds oldest continuously operating commercial airports. Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport in Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota, opened in 1920 and has been in continuous commercial service since. It serves about 35.000.000 passengers each year and continues to expand, recently opening a new 11.000 foot 3.355 meter runway. Of the airports constructed during this early period in aviation, it is one of the largest and busiest that is still currently operating. Rome Ciampino Airport, opened 1916, is also a contender, as well as the Don Mueang International Airport near Bangkok, Thailand, which opened in 1914. Increased aircraft traffic during World War I led to the construction of landing fields. Aircraft had to approach these from certain directions and this led to the development of aids for directing the approach and landing slope.

Following the war, some of these military airfields added civil facilities for handling passenger traffic. One of the earliest such fields was Paris – Le Bourget Airport at Le Bourget, near Paris. The first airport to operate scheduled international commercial services was Hounslow Heath Aerodrome in August 1919, but it was closed and supplanted by Croydon Airport in March 1920. In 1922, the first permanent airport and commercial terminal solely for commercial aviation was opened at Flughafen Devau near what was then Konigsberg, East Prussia. The airports of this era used a paved "apron", which permitted night flying as well as landing heavier aircraft.

The first lighting used on an airport was during the latter part of the 1920s; in the 1930s approach lighting came into use. These indicated the proper direction and angle of descent. The colours and flash intervals of these lights became standardized under the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO. In the 1940s, the slope-line approach system was introduced. This consisted of two rows of lights that formed a funnel indicating an aircrafts position on the glideslope. Additional lights indicated incorrect altitude and direction.

After World War II, airport design became more sophisticated. Passenger buildings were being grouped together in an island, with runways arranged in groups about the terminal. This arrangement permitted expansion of the facilities. But it also meant that passengers had to travel further to reach their plane.

An improvement in the landing field was the introduction of grooves in the concrete surface. These run perpendicular to the direction of the landing aircraft and serve to draw off excess rainwater that could build up in front of the planes wheels.

Airport construction boomed during the 1960s with the increase in jet aircraft traffic. Runways were extended out to 3.000 m 9.800 ft. The fields were constructed out of reinforced concrete using a slip-form machine that produces a continuous slab with no disruptions along the length. The early 1960s also saw the introduction of jet bridge systems to modern airport terminals, an innovation which eliminated outdoor passenger boarding. These systems became commonplace in the United States by the 1970s.

The malicious use of UAVs has led to the deployment of counter unmanned air system C-UAS technologies such as the Aaronia AARTOS which have been installed on major international airports.

                                     

9. Airports in entertainment

Airports have played major roles in films and television programs due to their very nature as a transport and international hub, and sometimes because of distinctive architectural features of particular airports. One such example of this is The Terminal, a film about a man who becomes permanently grounded in an airport terminal and must survive only on the food and shelter provided by the airport. They are also one of the major elements in movies such as The V.I.P.s, Speed, Airplane!, Airport 1970, Die Hard 2, Soul Plane, Jackie Brown, Get Shorty, Home Alone, Liar Liar, Passenger 57, Final Destination 2000, Unaccompanied Minors, Catch Me If You Can, Rendition and The Langoliers. They have also played important parts in television series like Lost, The Amazing Race, Americas Next Top Model, Cycle 10 which have significant parts of their story set within airports. In other programmes and films, airports are merely indicative of journeys, e.g. Good Will Hunting.

Several computer simulation games put the player in charge of an airport. These include the Airport Tycoon series, SimAirport and Airport CEO.

                                     

10. Airport directories

Each national aviation authority has a source of information about airports in their country. This will contain information on airport elevation, airport lighting, runway information, communications facilities and frequencies, hours of operation, nearby NAVAIDs and contact information where prior arrangement for landing is necessary.

  • Australia
Information can be found on-line in the En route Supplement Australia ERSA which is published by Airservices Australia, a government owned corporation charged with managing Australian ATC.
  • Brazil

Infraero is responsible for the airports in Brazil

  • Canada
Two publications, the Canada Flight Supplement CFS and the Water Aerodrome Supplement, published by NAV CANADA under the authority of Transport Canada provides equivalent information.
  • Europe
The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation EUROCONTROL provides an Aeronautical Information Publication AIP, aeronautical charts and NOTAM services for multiple European countries.
  • Germany
Provided by the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt Federal Office for Civil Aviation of Germany.
  • France
Aviation Generale Delage edited by Delville and published by Breitling.
  • The United Kingdom and Ireland
The information is found in Pooleys Flight Guide, a publication compiled with the assistance of the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority CAA. Pooleys also contains information on some continental European airports that are close to Great Britain. National Air Traffic Services, the UKs Air Navigation Service Provider, a public–private partnership also publishes an online AIP for the UK.
  • The United States
The U.S. uses the Airport/Facility Directory A/FD, published in seven volumes. DAFIF also includes extensive airport data but has been unavailable to the public at large since 2006.
  • Japan
Aeronautical Information Publication AIP is provided by Japan Aeronautical Information Service Center, under the authority of Japan Civil Aviation Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan.
  • A comprehensive, consumer/business directory of commercial airports in the world primarily for airports as businesses, rather than for pilots is organized by the trade group Airports Council International.