ⓘ Man of the West
Man of the West is a 1958 American Western film starring Gary Cooper and directed by Anthony Mann, produced by Walter Mirisch and distributed by United Artists. The screenplay, written by Reginald Rose, is based on the 1955 novel The Border Jumpers, by Will C. Brown. The film co-stars Julie London, Jack Lord, Arthur OConnell and Lee J. Cobb in supporting roles. The film is one of Coopers final western roles.
Former outlaw Link Jones Cooper travels from his small town to Texas to hire their first schoolteacher. When his train stops on the way, they are set upon by armed robbers but the train escapes leaving behind Jones, the fast-talking Sam Beasley OConnell and saloon singer Billie Ellis London. They start walking and eventually reach a place that Link knows well: the farmhouse where he once lived. There he finds the men who robbed the train and their leader, his uncle, Dock Tobin Cobb, who wants Link to return to his old ways and re-join the gang, which consists of some of Links cousins. Link has no interest in doing so and has to find a way out for himself and his two companions, knowing that they will die once the gang finishes its next big job.
The film premiered in October 1, 1958. At the time of release, the film was largely panned by American critics, but it was praised by Jean-Luc Godard, who, before he became a director, was a film critic. Godard claimed that Man of the West was the best film of the year. Decades after the films release, it has gained a cult following and greater acclaim, with film historian Philip French claiming the film to be Anthony Manns masterpiece, containing Coopers finest performance.
Link Jones Gary Cooper rides into Crosscut, Texas to have a bite to eat, then catch a train to Fort Worth, where he intends to use the savings of his community of Good Hope to hire a schoolteacher.
On the train platform, Sam Beasley Arthur OConnell speaks with Link briefly, rousing the suspicions of the town marshal, Sam being a known con man. When the marshal comments that Link looks familiar, Link gives him a false name.
Aboard the train, Sam impulsively joins Link, learns of his mission in Fort Worth and claims he can be of help. Sam introduces him to the Crosscut saloon singer, Billie Ellis Julie London, insisting she could make an ideal teacher.
Their conversation is overheard by Alcutt, a shady-looking passenger. When the train stops to pick up wood for additional fuel, male passengers help load the train but Alcutt remains on board, feigning sleep. From a window, he signals three other men, Coaley Tobin Jack Lord, Trout Royal Dano and Ponch Robert J. Wilke, who rob the train.
Link tries to intervene and is knocked unconscious. The train pulls away, with Alcutt riding off with Links bag containing Good Hopes money. Alcutt is wounded as he and the robbers flee.
Link revives to discover that he, Sam and Billie have been left behind, many miles from the nearest town. Link leads them on foot to a ramshackle farm, admitting that he lived there years earlier. While the others wait in the barn, Link enters the run-down house and finds the train robbers hiding inside.
Coaley is suspicious of Links claim that he simply wants to rest for the night. They are interrupted by aging outlaw Dock Tobin Lee J. Cobb, who is startled to see Link, his nephew, whom he raised to be a killer and a thief. More than a dozen years earlier, in order to go straight, Link abandoned Tobin and the old man laments that nothing has been the same since. He introduces Link to the others, including Links cousin, Coaley.
Disturbed by the revelation of Links true identity, Coaley demonstrates his toughness by killing Alcutt, who is near death from his wound. Realizing the danger of his situation, Link brings Sam and Billie in from the barn and lies to Tobin, telling him that he purposely set out to find him after being left behind by the train.
Tobin reveals his long-held ambition to rob the bank in the town of Lassoo and asserts that Links return to the gang makes that possible and will breathe new life into them all. In order to protect the lives of his companions, Link agrees to participate in the holdup. After Link and Sam are sent outside to dig a grave and bury Alcutt, an increasingly drunken Coaley decides to force Billie to strip. Her cries alert Link and, when he returns to the cabin, Coaley holds a knife to his throat while continuing to demand Billie remove her clothes.
When she is nearly undressed, Tobin steps in and ends the situation. He tells everyone to go to sleep and sends Link and Billie to sleep in the barn. Link earlier lied that Billie his woman.
Claude Tobin John Dehner, another cousin, arrives and is displeased at finding Link there. Tobin rejects the suggestion of Claude and Coaley that it would be best to kill Link and the others. They all depart on the four-day ride to Lassoo.
When they make camp on the trail, Link seeks revenge for the brutal treatment of Billie at the ranch and goads the brutal Coaley into a fistfight; Link and beats his cousin severely, then forcibly strips him of his clothes. Deeply humiliated, Coaley attempts to shoot the unarmed Link, but Sam intercedes and is killed instead. Tobin then shoots Coaley for disobeying him.
During the trip, Billie bemoans the fact that Link is a man worth loving but that she cannot have him. He has a wife and children in Good Hope.
With the town of Lassoo in sight, Link volunteers to go in and do the holdup job, secretly hoping that in town he can seek help. Tobin insists that he be accompanied by the mute Trout. It turns out that Lassoo is a ghost town, its bank deserted except for a frightened old Mexican woman, whom Trout shoots in a panic. Link kills Trout. He then awaits the arrival of Claude and Ponch. In a drawn-out gun battle, Link kills Ponch first, then eventually and with some regret - because as children the two of them had been fairly close - Claude.
Returning to camp, Link discovers to his horror that Billie has been raped and beaten. He goes in search of Tobin, who is on a cliff nearby. Link calls out to his uncle that he, like Lassoo, is a ghost and is finished. He shoots Tobin and reclaims the bag of Good Hopes money.
Riding back to civilization, Billie tells Link she loves him but, knowing that he intends to return to his home and his family, she is resigned to the fact that she must resume her singing career and proceed alone.
2.1. Production Development
The script of the film which was written by Reginald Rose best known for writing 12 Angry Men 1957), was based on the 1955 novel The Border Jumpers by Will C. Brown. The title of the film had nothing to do with the novel entitled Man of the West, which was written by screenwriter Philip Yordan. Yordans novel had been adapted into a film called Gun Glory, which starred Stewart Granger in the lead role. The producer of the film, Walter Mirisch whose company produced the Academy Award-nominated films: The Magnificent Seven 1960, West Side Story 1961, The Great Escape 1963 and In the Heat of the Night 1967), assigned director Anthony Mann to direct an adaptation of the film.
2.2. Production Casting
Stewart Granger was originally considered for the lead role. James Stewart, who had worked with director Anthony Mann in eight movies, five of them westerns: Winchester 73 1950, Bend of the River 1952, The Naked Spur 1953, The Far Country 1954 and The Man from Laramie 1955, eagerly wanted the role. Supposedly, Stewart was extremely upset when Mann didnt give him the script for the film, felt betrayed, and had no interest in working with him ever again, although Mann thought that Stewart would be unfit for the role. Another probable reason why Mann didnt give Stewart the script was that Mann and Stewart had a falling out during the shooting of Night Passage 1957. While Mann and Stewart felt that the script of the film need some rewrites, Mann wanted a darker edge for the main character of the film and dropped out of the film because Stewart softened up the character and sang a few songs in the final film, as a showcase for his own accordion playing. With Mann out of the picture, James Neilson took over his position as director. Gary Cooper was eventually cast for the lead role of Link Jones, a former outlaw who is forced to relive his past. It made three years since Cooper hadnt done a Western. Cooper felt that he was miscast in the role of the former outlaw because he was twenty years older than the character; Cooper was 56 at the time of filming, the lead character being 36. However, in an interview at the 2008 Cinecon in Hollywood, Mirisch claimed that having just wrapped Love in the Afternoon, he promptly signed Cooper for another picture, which ended up being this one. He stated that they hadnt even considered a director yet, so Stewart was never a factor.
According to biographer Jeffrey Meyers, Cooper, who struggled with moral conflicts in his personal life, "understood the anguish of a character striving to retain his integrity. brought authentic feeling to the role of a tempted and tormented, yet essentially decent man."
Lee J. Cobb who had starred in 12 Angry Men as one of the twelve jurors played the role of Dock Tobin, the uncle of Link, who wants his nephew to return to his old ways and rejoin his gang. Despite playing the uncle of the main character, Cobb was ten years younger than Cooper. Makeup was applied to make Cobb look older than Cooper. The main villain of the film, Tobin wants his nephew to return to his old ways and rejoin his gang. This was the same case with John Dehner who played Links cousin and childhood friend, Claude. Denher was fourteen years younger than Cooper.
Arthur OConnell played Sam Beasley, a fast-talking gambler, and saloon singer Billie Ellis was played by Julie London. London said this was her favorite movie. Tobins henchmen Coaley, Trout and Ponch who rob the train were played by Jack Lord, Royal Dano and Robert J. Wilke respectively. J. Williams played Alcutt, one of the passengers on the train and Chief Tahachee was cast as Pio.
Joe Dominguez, Dick Elliott, Frank Ferguson, Herman and Signe Hack, Anne Kunde, Tom London, Tina Menard, Emory Parnell, Chuck Roberson, Glen Walters and Glen Wilkerson play minor roles in the film and are uncredited.
2.3. Production Filming
Principal photography of Man of the West started and ended in 1958, with a budget of $1.5 million. The film was shot on the widescreen CinemaScope process which was introduced in 1953 by cinematographer Ernest Haller, who is best known for his Academy Award-winning work in Gone with the Wind.
Although the film takes place in Texas, most of the film was shot in California. The train scenes were shot on Sierra Railroad, Jamestown, California. The Red Rock Canyon State Park, Santa Clarita, Thousand Oaks, Newhall and the Mojave Desert all served as filming locations for the film. Two ranches located on Newhall and Thousand Oaks respectively were used as sets which were designed by art director Hilyard M. Brown, best known for his work in Cleopatra for which he won an Academy Award for Best Art Direction, Creature from the Black Lagoon and The Night of the Hunter.
Gary Cooper did his own horse-riding scenes despite physical pain that he suffered from a car accident years earlier. Chuck Roberson, Jack Williams and Jack N. Young were the stunt performers for the film.
During a snow storm, Mann observed Coopers eyes, which fascinated him: "Its all in the eyes. The heroes, all the stars the public loves, have very light blue eyes or green eyes.The eyes reflect the inner flame that animates the heroes. The guys with dark eyes play supporting roles or become character actors."
Canadian film critic Robin Wood noted that Man of the West is director Anthony Manns version of William Shakespeares play King Lear, whose elements appeared in The Furies, The Naked Spur and The Man From Laramie, with its sense of emotional whirlwind, and an older order crumbling. Man of the West, like most Mann films, is a tale of redemption. We are asked to consider the essential monstrousness of the hero, and whether redemption is a tenable idea. The noble frontiersman is made the Other, and one not very deserving of sympathy, a savage whose past ghoulishness seems unimaginable. Wood also noted that the film looks down the road to the contemporary horror film: The Texas Chainsaw Massacre Tobe Hooper, 1974 and The Hills Have Eyes Wes Craven, 1977, with their savage clans and desiccated American wasteland, are not far away.
When first released, the film was largely ignored by American critics, though renowned French critic Jean-Luc Godard regarded it as the best film released that year. Howard Thompson, in The New York Times, gave it one of the few raves in the mainstream press. In the decades since the films release, it has garnered a cult following as well as considerably greater acclaim. Some, such as The Guardian s Derek Malcolm consider the film Manns best and a landmark in the western genres canon. Malcolm included the film in his 2000 list The Century of Film. Critic and film historian Philip French cites Man of the West as Anthony Manns masterpiece, containing Gary Coopers greatest performance. As of 2015, Man of the West maintains a rare 100% approval rating on the Rotten Tomatoes film website, based on reviews from 13 critics.
4.1. Reception "Morally objectionable"
The trade publication Motion Picture Daily reported in 1958 that the National Legion of Decency objected to the content of Man of the West. In its October 3 issue, just two days after the films release, the daily magazine provides a few examples of the Legions classification system for judging a Hollywood productions level of "decency":
Two pictures were placed in Class B, as morally objectionable in part for all by the Legion of Decency, which reviewed seven films this week. In the B category are "Man of the West" and "Queen of Outer Space." Objection to the first was explained thusly, "the highly moral nature of this story is substantially marred by excessive brutality and unnecessary suggestiveness." Of "Queen," the group said it contains "suggestive costuming."