ⓘ 1795

                                     

ⓘ 1795

1795 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1795th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 795th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1795, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

                                     

1.1. Events January–June

  • April 5 – The Peace of Basel is signed, between France and Prussia.
  • January 14 – The University of North Carolina opens to students at Chapel Hill, becoming the first state university in the United States.
  • February 7 – The Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed.
  • Sweden becomes the first monarchy to recognize the French Republic - Swedish ambassador introduced into the French Convention.
  • January 20 – French troops enter Amsterdam.
  • January 16 – The French occupy Utrecht, Netherlands.
  • January 21 – Capture of the Dutch fleet at Den Helder: The Dutch fleet, frozen in Zuiderzee, is captured by the French 8th Hussars.
  • Former Governor-General of India Warren Hastings is acquitted by the British House of Lords of misconduct.
  • January 18 – Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam: William V, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, flees the country.
  • January 19 – The Batavian Republic is proclaimed in Amsterdam.
  • January – England records its coldest ever month, in the CET records dating back to 1659.
  • April 23
  • March – English Benedictine monks expelled from Douai are permitted to proceed to England.
  • April 8 – George, Prince of Wales, marries Caroline of Brunswick.
  • April 7 – The metric system is adopted in France.
  • March 13–14 – Battle of Genoa: The British and Neapolitan fleets are victorious over the French.
  • British forces land off Quiberon, to aid the revolt in Brittany.
  • May 31 – French Revolution: Revolutionary Tribunal suppressed.
  • June 8 – The Dauphin of France, would-be-Louis XVII, dies. Louis XVIII becomes titular King of France he becomes the actual king on April 6, 1814.
  • May–June – The Battle of Richmond Hill is fought in the colony of New South Wales, between the Darug people and British colonial forces.
  • May 1 – Battle of Nuuanu: Kamehameha I of the Island of Hawaii defeats the Oahuans, solidifying his control of the major islands of the archipelago and officially founding the Kingdom of Hawaii.
  • June 28 – The French government announces that the heir to the French throne has died of illness many doubt the statement.
  • June 27
  • French troops recapture St. Lucia.
  • June 16–17 – French Revolutionary Wars – Cornwalliss Retreat: A British Royal Navy battle squadron commanded by William Cornwallis fends off a numerically superior French Navy fleet, off the coast of Brittany.
  • June 5–7 – The Copenhagen Fire of 1795, starting in a naval warehouse, destroys 941 houses.
  • June 24 – The United States Senate ratifies the Jay Treaty with Great Britain.
  • Mary Robinson writes the poem January, 1795.
                                     

1.2. Events July–December

  • October 27 – The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the U.S.
  • December 28 – Construction of Yonge Street, formerly recognized as the longest street in the world, begins in York, Upper Canada present-day Toronto.
  • September 28 – The Alliance of St Petersburg is formed between Britain, Russia and Austria against France.
  • October 24 – The Third Partition of Poland is made, dividing the territory of the Commonwealth of Poland between the Habsburg Monarchy, Prussia and the Russian Empire. On November 25, Stanislaw August Poniatowski formally abdicates as last King of Poland.
  • October 5 – 13 Vendemiaire: Royalist riots in Paris are crushed by troops under Paul Barras, and newly reinstalled artillery officer Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • September 21 – Battle of the Diamond: Protestant forces defeat Catholic troops in Loughgall, Ireland, leading to the foundation of the Orange Order.
  • July 22 – The Second Treaty of Basel is signed between the French First Republic and Spain, ending the War of the Pyrenees. Spain cedes its half of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola to France.
  • July 25 – Construction of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct in Wales begins.
  • September 15 – French Revolutionary Wars – Invasion of the Cape Colony: British forces capture Cape Town in the Dutch Cape Colony, to use its strategic facilities against the French Navy.
  • December 13 – Wold Cottage meteorite: A meteorite falls at Wold Newton, a hamlet in Yorkshire in England. This meteorite fall is subsequently used as a literary premise by science fiction writer Philip Jose Farmer, as the basis for the Wold Newton family.
  • August 14 – President Washington signs the Jay Treaty with Britain on behalf of the United States.
  • November 2 – French Revolution: The French Directory takes power; the influence of the Sans-culottes declines.
  • October 2 – British forces capture the Ile dYeu off the coast of Brittany.
  • September 5 – The United States signs a treaty with the Dey of Algiers, ruled by Baba Hassan, pledging the payment of $23.000 a year tribute to prevent piracy against American ships.
  • September 11 – Battle of Krtsanisi: The Persian emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar defeats the forces of Heraclius II of Georgia.
  • August 3 – The signing of the Treaty of Greenville puts an end to the Northwest Indian War.
  • August 22 – French Revolution: The Constitution of the Year III is ratified by the National Convention.
  • October 20 – The United States signs a treaty with Spain, opening commerce along the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico, and establishing boundaries between U.S. territory and Spanish Florida.
  • August 17 – A large slave rebellion occurs in Curaçao, suppressed following month.
  • August 28 – The Third Treaty of Basel is signed, between the French First Republic and the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel.
  • October 1 – The Austrian Netherlands is annexed to the French Republic, as the Belgian departments.
  • August 25 – British forces capture Trincomalee, Ceylon.
                                     

1.3. Events Undated

  • The Hudsons Bay Company trading post Fort Edmonton is constructed; the city of Edmonton, Alberta, eventually grows from it.
  • The British Royal Navy makes the use of lemon juice mandatory, to prevent scurvy.
  • Jim Beam is founded as Old Jake Beam Sour Mash.
  • The harvest fails in Munich.
  • Daniel McGinnis discovers the supposed Money Pit on Oak Island, Nova Scotia.
                                     

2. Births

  • June 11 – Sara Torsslow, Swedish actor d. 1859
  • October 15 – King Frederick William IV of Prussia d. 1861
  • February 16 – Sarah Ann Gill, Barbadian national heroine d. 1866
  • June 19 – James Braid, Scottish surgeon, hypnotism pioneer d. 1860
  • February 3 – Antonio Jose de Sucre, Venezuelan revolutionary leader, general and statesman d. 1830
  • September 1 – James Gordon Bennett, American newspaper publisher d. 1872
  • November 2 – James K. Polk, 11th President of the United States d. 1849
  • September 7 – John William Polidori, English writer and physician d. 1821
  • March 12 – William Lyon Mackenzie, Scottish journalist, 1st Mayor of Toronto d. 1861
  • January 6 – Anselme Payen, French chemist d. 1878
  • December 4 – Thomas Carlyle, Scottish writer, historian d. 1881
  • September 18 – Kondraty Ryleyev, Russian poet, Decembrist d. 1826
  • October 26 – Nikolaos Mantzaros, Greek composer d. 1872
  • August 27 – Giorgio Mitrovich, Maltese politician d. 1885
  • June 21 – Jose Maria Pinedo, Argentinian naval commander d. 1885
  • February 18 – George Peabody, American businessman; "Father of modern philanthropy" d. 1869
  • October 31 – John Keats, English poet d. 1821
  • December 21 – Leopold von Ranke, German historian d. 1886
  • January 18 – Anna Pavlovna of Russia, Dutch queen d. 1865
  • May 23 – Charles Barry, English architect d. 1860
  • May 19 – Johns Hopkins, American businessman, philanthropist d. 1873
  • January 26 – Policarpa Salavarrieta, Colombian spy, revolutionary heroine who worked for the independence of Colombia d. 1817
  • July 5 – Georg Ernst Ludwig Hampe, German pharmacist, botanist and bryologist d. 1880
  • December 10 – Matthias W. Baldwin, American locomotive manufacturer d. 1866
  • June 13 – Thomas Arnold, English school reformer d. 1842
  • November 12 – Thaddeus William Harris, American naturalist d. 1856
  • September 16 – Saverio Mercadante, Italian composer d. 1870
  • May 4 – Annestine Beyer, Danish reform pedagogue d. 1884
  • October 13 – James McDowell, American politician d. 1851
  • September 6 – Achille Baraguey dHilliers, Marshal of France d. 1878
  • October 16 – William Buell Sprague, American clergyman, author d. 1876
  • December 3 – Rowland Hill, English teacher, inventor and social reformer d. 1879
  • February 8 – Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, German chemist d. 1867
  • December 2 – Guillermo William Miller, English-born military leader in Peru d. 1861
  • June 24 – Ernst Heinrich Weber, German physician, psychologist d. 1878


                                     

3.1. Deaths January–March

  • Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 6th Duke of Liria and Jerica, second surviving son of the Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart b. 1792
  • January 5
  • January 3 – Josiah Wedgwood, English potter, entrepreneur b. 1730
  • Philipp Gotthard von Schaffgotsch, German Prince-Bishop b. 1716
  • January 10 – David Blackburn, Royal Navy officer b. 1753
  • February 7 – Antoine Polier, Swiss adventurer b. 1741
  • February 27
  • January 19 – Thomas Balguy, English churchman b. 1716
  • Tanikaze Kajinosuke, Japanese sumo wrestler b. 1750
  • January 21 – Samuel Wallis, English navigator
  • January 23 – John Sullivan, American General in the American Revolutionary War, delegate in the Continental Congress b. 1740
  • February 11 – Carl Michael Bellman, Swedish poet b. 1740
  • January 25 – Morgan Edwards, British historian and minister b. 1722
  • Richard Clarke, Massachusetts merchant b. 1711
  • January 22 – Richard Clinton, officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution b. 1741
  • February 3 – Richard Edwards, naval officer and colonial governor of Newfoundland b. c. 1715
  • February 14 – Samuel Cook Silliman, member of the Connecticut House of Representatives from Norwalk b. 1741
  • January 26 – Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach, German harpsichordist, composer b. 1732
  • Giovanni Arduino, Italian geologist b. 1714
  • Honore III, Prince of Monaco b. 1720
  • March 21
  • March 4 – John Collins, third Governor of the U b. 1717
  • March 9 – John Armstrong, Sr., American civil engineer and major general during the Revolutionary War b. 1717
  • March 18 – Jonathan Buck, Bucksport b. 1719
  • March 15 – Louisa Catharina Harkort, German ironmaster b. 1718
  • March 5 – Josef Reicha b. 1752
                                     

3.2. Deaths April–June

  • May 7 – Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, French revolutionary leader executed b. 1746
  • May 2 – Increase Moseley, American politician b. 1712
  • James Boswell, Scottish author b. 1740
  • May 19
  • April 30 – Jean-Jacques Barthelemy, French writer and numismatist b. 1716
  • May 12 – Ezra Stiles, American academic, educator anf author b. 1727
  • May 11 – Joachim Edler von Popper, Austrian banker b. 1722
  • April 12 – Johann Kaspar Basselet von La Rosee, Bavarian general b. 1710
  • May 17 – Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle, British Army general b. 1752
  • Josiah Bartlett, signer of the American Declaration of Independence b. 1729
  • April 1 – Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrucken b. 1746
  • May 18 – Robert Rogers, American colonial frontiersman b. 1731
  • April 6 – George Collier, officer of the Royal Navy who saw service during the Seven Years War b. 1738
  • May 6 – Pieter Boddaert, Dutch physician and naturalist b. 1730
  • Francesco Paolo Di Blasi, Sicilian jurist b. 1753
  • Louis Eugene, Duke of Wurttemberg, third son of Duke Karl Alexander b. 1731
  • May 20
  • June 13 – Stephen Popham, British politician and solicitor b. 1745
  • June 24 – William Smellie, Scottish printer and encyclopedist b. 1740
  • June 1 – Pierre-Joseph Desault, French anatomist and surgeon b. 1744
  • June 17 – Gilbert Romme, French politician and mathematician b. 1750
  • May 27 – Thomas-Laurent Bedard, Canadian priest b. 1747
  • June 8 – King Louis XVII of France b. 1785
  • June 23 – James Craig, Scottish architect b. 1739


                                     

3.3. Deaths July–September

  • July 3
  • Louis-Georges de Brequigny, French historian b. 1714
  • Antonio de Ulloa, Spanish general and governor of Louisiana b. 1716
  • July 28 – Zebulon Butler, soldier and politician b. 1731
  • Grigory Shelikhov, Russian merchant b. 1747
  • Basilio da Gama, Portuguese poet and member of the Society of Jesus b. 1740
  • July 10 – Omar Ali Saifuddin I, Sultan of Brunei from 1740 until his death in 1795 b. 1711
  • July 12 – Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria b. 1772
  • July 9 – Henry Seymour Conway, British general and statesman b. 1721
  • July 31
  • July 27 – Louis Gregoire Deschamps Destournelles, French politician b. 1744
  • August 14
  • George Adams, English optician and writer b. 1750
  • August 4 – Timothy Ruggles, American-born Tory politician b. 1711
  • August 5 – William Fleming, physician b. 1729
  • Marianne Ehrmann b. 1755
  • September 22 – Sayat-Nova, Armenian musician and poet b. 1712
  • September 3 – Benjamin Beddome, English Baptist minister and hymnist b. 1717
  • August 23 – William Bradford, lawyer and judge b. 1755
  • August 19 – Friedrich Hartmann Graf, German flautist and composer b. 1727
  • August 31 – François-Andre Danican Philidor, French composer and chess player b. 1726
  • August 20 – William Jones, Welsh antiquary b. 1726
  • August 26 – Alessandro Cagliostro, Italian Freemason b. 1743
  • September 30 – George Butt, British poet


                                     

3.4. Deaths October–December

  • Samuel Fraunces, American restaurateur b. 1722
  • Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, Italian theologian and historian b. 1714
  • October 10
  • October 8 – Andrew Kippis, English non-conformist clergyman and biographer b. 1725
  • Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah, Nawab of Arcot in India b. 1717
  • October 13
  • William Prescott, American colonel during the Revolutionary War b. 1726
  • November 11 – George Dixon, English sea captain b. 1748
  • November 18
  • Antonio Cavallucci, Italian painter b. 1752
  • Jan August Cichocki, Polish military officer and a general of the Polish Army b. 1750
  • November 3 – Sir John Hotham, 9th Baronet b. 1734
  • November 6 – Jiei Antonin Benda, Bohemian composer b. 1722
  • October 27 – Madhavrao II b. 1774
  • November 15 – Charles-Amedee-Philippe van Loo, French painter b. 1719
  • November 17 – Samuel Bishop, poet born in London b. 1731
  • December 4 – Prince Eugene of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Prince of Saxe-Hildburghausen b. 1730
  • December 23 – Henry Clinton, British general b. 1730
  • December 10 – John Johnstone, East India Company b. 1734
  • December 28 – Eugenio Espejo, Ecuadorian scientist b. 1747
  • Date unknown - Marie Marguerite Biheron, French anatomist b. 1719
  • December 26 – Antonio Zucchi b. 1726