ⓘ 1798

                                     

ⓘ 1798

1798 was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1798th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 798th year of the 2nd millennium, the 98th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1798, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

                                     

1.1. Events January–June

  • March 7 – French forces invade the Papal States and establish the Roman Republic.
  • A moderate coup detat in the Netherlands Batavian Republic deposes Pieter Vreede.
  • June 12
  • The French take Malta.
  • April 7 – The Mississippi Territory is organized by the United States, from territory ceded by Georgia and South Carolina; later it is twice expanded, to include disputed territory claimed by both the U.S. and Spain which acquired territory in trade with Great Britain.
  • January 4 – Constantine Hangerli enters Bucharest, as Prince of Wallachia.
  • January 22 – A coup detat is staged in the Netherlands Batavian Republic. Unitarian Democrat Pieter Vreede ends the power of the parliament with a conservative-moderate majority.
  • March – Irish Rebellion of 1798 against British rule begins when Great Britains Irish militia arrest the leadership of the Society of United Irishmen, a group unique amongst Irish republican and nationalist movements in that it unifies Catholics and Protestants around republican ideals. This month, Lord Castlereagh is appointed Acting Chief Secretary for Ireland and on March 30 martial law is proclaimed here. The first battles in the rebellion are fought on May 24 and it continues through September, but the rebels receive much less than the expectated support from France, which sends only 1.100 men.
  • February 15 – U.S. Representative Roger Griswold Fed-CT beats Congressman Matthew Lyon Dem-Rep-VT with a cane after the House declines to censure Lyon earlier spitting in Griswolds face; the House declines to discipline either man.
  • April 26 – France annexes Geneva.
  • March 5 – French troops enter Bern.
  • May 9 – Napoleon sets off for Toulon, sailing aboard Vice-Admiral Brueyss flagship LOrient ; his squadron is part of a larger fleet of over 300 vessels, carrying almost 37.000 troops.
  • January – Eli Whitney contracts with the U.S. federal government for 10.000 muskets, which he produces with interchangeable parts.
  • April 12 – The Helvetic Republic, a French client republic, is proclaimed following the collapse of the Old Swiss Confederacy after the French invasion; Aarau becomes the republics temporary capital.
  • February 10 – The Pope is taken captive, and the Papacy is removed from power, by French General Louis-Alexandre Berthier.
  • April 30 – The United States Department of the Navy is established as a cabinet-level department. Benjamin Stoddert, a civilian businessman, is appointed as the first Navy Secretary by President Adams.
  • June 18 – The first of the four Alien and Sedition Acts, the Naturalization Act of 1798, is signed into law by U.S. President Adams, requiring immigrants to wait 14 years rather than five years to become naturalized citizens of the United States. On June 25, another law is signed authorizing the imprisonment and deportation of any non-citizens deemed to be dangerous.
  • June 13 – Mission San Luis Rey de Francia is founded in California.
                                     

1.2. Events July–December

  • July 1 – Egyptian Campaign: Napoleon disembarks his French army in Marabout Bay.
  • Quasi-War: The United States Congress rescinds treaties with France, sparking the war.
  • July 7
  • In the action of USS Delaware vs La Croyable, the newly-formed United States Navy makes its first capture.
  • September 10
  • July 11 – The United States Marine Corps is re-established under its present name.
  • July 21 – Battle of the Pyramids: Napoleon defeats Ottoman forces near the Pyramids.
  • Battle of St. Georges Caye: Off the coast of British Honduras modern-day Belize, a group of British nationals and African slaves defeat a force sent from Mexico to drive them out.
  • July 16 – The Relief of Sick and Disabled Seamen Act is signed into law, creating the Marine Hospital Service, the forerunner to the current United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps.
  • July 12 – Battle of Shubra Khit: French troops defeat the Mamelukes, during Napoleons march from Alexandria to take Cairo.
  • September – Charles Brockden Brown publishes the first significant American novel, the Gothic fiction Wieland: or, The Transformation; an American Tale.
  • July 24 – Napoleon occupies Cairo.
  • August 22 – French troops land at Kilcummin in County Mayo to assist the Irish Rebellion.
  • August 1 – Battle of the Nile near Abu Qir: Lord Nelson defeats the French navy under Admiral Brueys. 11 of the 13 French battleships are captured or destroyed, including the flagship Orient whose magazine explodes; Nelson himself is wounded in the head.
  • July 14 – The fourth of the Alien and Sedition Acts, the Sedition Act of 1798 is signed into law, making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the United States government.
  • July 31 – A second round of elections are held in the Netherlands Batavian Republic; no general elections this time.
  • The Piedmontese Republic is declared in the territory of Piedmont.
  • September 5 – Conscription is made mandatory in France by the Jourdan Law.
  • October 2 – The Cherokee nation signs a treaty with the United States allowing free passage through Cherokee lands in Tennessee through the Cumberland Gap through the Appalachian Mountains from Virginia into Kentucky.
  • September 23 – Battle of Killala: in the last land battle of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, British troops defeat the remaining rebel Irish and French forces at Killala.
  • Battle of Tory Island: A British Royal Navy squadron, under Sir John Borlase Warren, prevents French Republican ships, commanded by Jean-Baptiste-François Bompart, from landing reinforcements for the Society of United Irishmen on the Donegal coast; Irish leader Wolfe Tone is captured and later dies of his wounds. This ends the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
  • October 12
  • Peasants War against the French occupiers of the Southern Netherlands begins in Overmere.
  • October 7 – U.S. Representative Matthew Lyon of Vermont becomes the first member of Congress to be put on trial for violating the new Sedition Act of 1798.
  • September 18 – Lyrical Ballads is published anonymously by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, inaugurating the English Romantic movement in literature.
  • October 22 – Capitulation of the French garrison at Hyderabad to East India Company troops under James Kirkpatrick, British Resident.
  • December 6 – General Joubert of the Piedmontese Republic occupies the Sardinian capital of Turin.
  • December 5 – Peasants War in the Southern Netherlands: The revolt is crushed in Hasselt; during the uprising it is estimated that 5.000 to 10.000 people have been killed.
  • November 8 – British whaler John Fearn becomes the first European to land on Nauru.
  • November 28 – Trade between the United States and modern-day Uruguay begins when John Leamys frigate John arrives in Montevideo.
  • November 4 – The Russo-Ottoman siege of Corfu begins.
                                     

1.3. Events Date unknown

  • Edward Jenner publishes An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ, describing the smallpox vaccine, in London.
  • Nathan Mayer Rothschild moves from Frankfurt in the Holy Roman Empire to England, settling up in business as a textile trader and financier in Manchester.
  • Alois Senefelder invents lithography.
  • Thomas Malthus publishes An Essay on the Principle of Population anonymously in London.
  • The platypus is first discovered by Europeans.
  • The Ayrshire Earl of Carricks Own Yeomanry, a British Army Yeomanry Cavalry Regiment, formed by The Earl of Cassillis at Culzean Castle, Ayrshire in 1794, is adopted onto the British Army List.
  • The first census in Brazil counts 2 million blacks in a total population of 3.25 million.
                                     

2. Births

  • January 20 – Anson Jones, 5th and last President of the Republic of Texas d. 1858
  • June 29 – Giacomo Leopardi, Italian writer d. 1837
  • April 3 – Charles Wilkes, American naval officer, explorer d. 1877
  • March 13 – Abigail Fillmore, First Lady of the United States d. 1853
  • June 14 – Frantisek Palacky, Czech historian, politician d. 1876
  • January 19 – Auguste Comte, French sociologist d. 1857
  • January 14 – Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, Dutch politician d. 1872
  • March 25 – Corvo Attano, fictional character, Royal Protector, assassin d. unknown
  • July 15 – Alexander Gorchakov, Russian politician d. 1883
  • September 4 – Raynold Kaufgetz, Swiss academic d. 1869
  • October 12 – Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil also Pedro IV, King of Portugal d. 1834
  • December 4 – Jules Armand Dufaure, 3-time Prime Minister of France d. 1881
  • March 23 – Christiane Bocher, Norwegian actress d. 1874
  • June 12 – William Abbot, English actor d. 1843
  • December 24 – Adam Mickiewicz, Polish writer d. 1855
  • September 11 – Franz Ernst Neumann, German mineralogist, physicist and mathematician d. 1895
  • April 2 – August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben, German writer d. 1874
  • August 17 – Thomas Hodgkin, British physician, pathologist d. 1866
  • April 26 – Eugene Delacroix, French painter d. 1863
  • April 12 – Baron du Potet, French writer d. 1881
  • October 2 – King Charles Albert of Sardinia d. 1849
  • Eduard von Feuchtersleben, Polish-born mining engineer and writer d. 1857
  • Mary Faber, West African slave trader and local potentate d. after 1857
  • April 28 – Duncan Forbes, British linguist d. 1868
  • May 10 – Christodoulos Hatzipetros, Greek military leader d. 1869
  • March 9 – Mathilda Berwald, Finnish and Swedish concert singer d. 1877
  • March 25 – Christoph Gudermann, German mathematician d. 1852
  • July 14 – Alessandro Antonelli, Italian architect d. 1888
  • Date unknown


                                     

3. Deaths

  • January 22 – Lewis Morris, American landowner and developer, signer of the United States Declaration of Independence b. 1726
  • June 25 – Thomas Sandby, English cartographer, architect b. 1721
  • June – Betsy Gray, Irish rebel heroine
  • August 11 – Joshua Clayton, American politician b. 1744
  • April 29 – Nikolaus Poda von Neuhaus, German entomologist b. 1723
  • November 15 – Angelo Maria Amorevoli, Italian operatic tenor b. 1716
  • June 29 – Catharina Mulder, Dutch organist d. 1723
  • August 25 – MikielAng Grima, Maltese surgeon b. 1731
  • February 25 – Louis Jules Mancini Mazarini, French diplomat, writer b. 1716
  • November 5 – John Zephaniah Holwell, British surgeon b. 1711
  • May 19 – William Byron, 5th Baron Byron, English dueler b. 1722
  • August 1 – François-Paul Brueys dAigalliers, French admiral killed in battle b. 1753
  • April 11 – Karl Wilhelm Ramler, German poet b. 1725
  • March 22 – Justin Morgan, American horse breeder and composer b. 1747
  • June 4 – Giacomo Casanova, Italian adventurer, writer b. 1725
  • May 10 – George Vancouver, British Royal Navy officer, explorer Vancouver, Canada is named after him b. 1757
  • March 25 – General Michel Joachim Marie Raymond, French leader of the army of the Nizam of Hyderabad poisoned b. 1755
  • December 16 – Thomas Pennant, Welsh naturalist b. 1726
  • November 21 – Gabriel Lenkiewicz, Belarusian Temporary Vicar General of the Society of Jesus b. 1722
  • April – Gideon Morris, trans-Appalachian pioneer b. 1756
  • February 12 – Stanislaw August Poniatowski, deposed last King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania b. 1732
  • July 17 – Henry Joy McCracken, Irish republican
  • June 21 – John Kelly of Killanne, Irish republican
  • August 18 – John Lewis Gervais, American revolutionary and politician b. 1741
  • August 21 – James Wilson, American politician b. 1742
  • April 14 – Henry Mowat, Scottish-born British Royal Navy officer b. 1734
  • December 4 – Luigi Galvani, Italian physicist b. 1737
  • September 21 – George Read, American lawyer, signer of the Declaration of Independence b. 1733
  • November 19 – Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish republican b. 1737
  • August 24 – Thomas Alcock, English clergyman b. 1709
  • April 12 – Madeleine de Puisieux, French writer, active feminist b. 1720
  • July 21 – François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt, Austrian field marshal b. 1733