ⓘ 1799

                                     

ⓘ 1799

1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1799th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 799th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1799, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

                                     

1.1. Events January–June

  • March 4 – The Russo-Ottoman siege of Corfu ends with the surrender of the French garrison, bringing an end to the first period of French rule in the Ionian Islands.
  • May 4 – Battle of Seringapatam: Tipu Sultan is defeated and killed by the British; the captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam ends.
  • February 28 – French Revolutionary Wars: Action of 28 February 1799 – British Royal Navy frigate HMS Sybille defeats the French frigate Forte, off the mouth of the Hooghly River in the Bay of Bengal, but both captains are killed.
  • January 9 – British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger introduces an income tax of two shillings to the pound, to raise funds for Great Britains war effort in the Napoleonic Wars.
  • March 1 – Federalist James Ross becomes President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
  • March 29 – New York passes a law aimed at gradually abolishing slavery in the state.
  • June 13 – Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies is restored to his kingdom following the collapse of the Parthenopean Republic.
  • March 7 – Siege of Jaffa: Napoleon captures Jaffa, Palestine, and his troops proceed to kill more than 2.000 Albanian captives.
  • April 27 – French Revolutionary Wars: The Battle of Cassano takes place outside of Milan, as Russian and Austrian troops commanded by General Alexander Suvorov rout the French Army under the command of General Jean Moreau.
  • May 27 – Battle of Winterthur: Habsburg forces secure control of north-east Switzerland, from the French Army of the Danube.
  • January 17 – Maltese patriot Dun Mikiel Xerri, along with a number of other patriots, is executed.
  • January 21 – The Parthenopean Republic is established in Naples by French General Jean Etienne Championnet; King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies flees.
  • May 21 – The Siege of Acre ends after two months; Napoleons attempt to widen his Middle Eastern campaign into Syria is frustrated by Ottoman forces, and he withdraws to Egypt.
  • June 18 – French Revolutionary Wars: Action of 18 June 1799 – A French frigate squadron, under Rear-admiral Perree, is captured by the British fleet under Lord Keith, off Toulon.
  • February 9 – Quasi-War: In the single-ship action of USS Constellation vs LInsurgente in the Caribbean, the American ship is the victor.
                                     

1.2. Events July–December

  • November 10 19 Brumaire – A remnant of the Council of Ancients in France abolishes the Constitution of the Year III, and ordains the French Consulate with Napoleon as First Consul, with the Constitution of the Year VIII.
  • October 12 – Jeanne Genevieve Labrosse becomes the first woman to jump from a balloon with a parachute, from an altitude of 900 metres 3.000 ft.
  • December 3 – War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Wiesloch: Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal Anton Sztaray defeats the French at Wiesloch.
  • July 25 – At Aboukir, Egypt, Napoleon defeats 10.000 Ottoman Mamluk troops under Mustafa Pasha.
  • August 29 – Pope Pius VI, at the time the longest reigning Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church, dies as a prisoner of war in the citadel of the French city of Valence, after 24½ years of rule.
  • November 30 – 1799–1800 Papal conclave opens in Venice at San Giorgio Monastery.
  • October 18 – Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland: Anglo-Russian expedition forces surrender in North Holland.
  • August 27 – War of the Second Coalition – Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland: Britain and Russia send an expedition to the Batavian Republic.
  • December 14 – George Washington, first President of the United States, dies at Mount Vernon, Virginia.
  • December 31 – The Dutch East India Companys charter is allowed to expire by the Batavian Republic.
  • July 15 – In the Egyptian port city of Rosetta, French Captain Pierre Bouchard finds the Rosetta Stone.
  • October 16 – Action of 16 October 1799: A Spanish treasure convoy worth more than £54.000.000 is captured by the British Royal Navy off Vigo.
  • November 9 Coup of 18 Brumaire – Napoleon overthrows the French Directory in a coup detat, which ends the French Revolution.
  • September 23 – Frederick North, 5th Earl of Guilford, the Governor of British Ceylon is sunk in the West Frisian Islands.
  • July 7 – Ranjit Singhs men take their positions outside Lahore.
  • July 12 – Ranjit Singh captures Lahore from the Bhangi Misl, a key step in establishing the Sikh Empire, and becoming Maharaja of the Punjab.
  • August 30 – Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland – Vlieter Incident: A squadron of the Batavian Republics navy, commanded by Rear-Admiral Samuel Story, surrenders to the British Royal Navy, under Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell, near Wieringen, without joining action.
  • December 10 – France adopts the metre as its official unit of length.
                                     

1.3. Events Date unknown

  • The Nawab provincial governor of Oudh in northern India sends to George III of England the Padshah Nama, an official history of the reign of Shah Jahan.
  • The assassination of the 14th Tui Kanokupolu, Tukuaho, plunges Tonga into half a century of civil war.
  • Eli Whitney, holding a 1798 United States government contract for the manufacture of muskets, is introduced by Oliver Wolcott, Jr. to the concept of interchangeable parts, an origin of the American system of manufacturing.
  • William Cockerill begins building cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium.
  • The small town of Tignish, Prince Edward Island, Canada is founded.
  • The Place Royale in Paris is renamed Place des Vosges, when the Department of Vosges becomes the first to pay new Revolutionary taxes.
  • Conrad John Reed, 12, finds what he describes as a "heavy yellow rock" along Little Meadow Creek in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, and makes it a doorstop in his home. Conrads father John Reed learns that the rock is actually gold in 1802, initiating the first gold rush in the United States.


                                     

2.1. Births January–June

  • June 18 – Prosper Meniere, French physician d. 1862
  • May 13 – Catherine Gore, English author d. 1861
  • March 29 – Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom d. 1869
  • June 3 – Elisabetta Fiorini Mazzanti, Italian botanist d. 1879
  • February 4 – Almeida Garrett, Portuguese writer d. 1854
  • February 27 – Edward Belcher, British admiral d. 1877
  • January 6 – Jedediah Smith, American fur trapper, explorer d. 1831
  • May 21 – Mary Anning, British paleontologist d. 1847
  • January 31 – Rodolphe Topffer, Swiss teacher, author, and artist d. 1846
  • January 23 – Alois Negrelli, Tyrolean engineer, railroad pioneer active in the Austrian Empire 1858
  • May 20 – Honore de Balzac, French author d. 1850
  • April 17 – Eliza Acton, English poet and cookery writer d. 1859
  • March 20 – Karl August Nicander, Swedish poet d. 1839
  • January 12 – Priscilla Susan Bury, British botanist d. 1872
  • June 6 – Alexander Pushkin, Russian author d. 1837
  • February 11 – Basil Moreau, founder of the Congregation of Holy Cross d. 1873
  • March 28 – Karl Adolph von Basedow, German physician, noted for reporting the symptoms of Graves–Basedow disease d. 1854
  • May 25 – Alexei Lvov, Russian composer d. 1870
  • March 16 – Anna Atkins, British botanist d. 1871
  • February 14 – Walenty Wankowicz, Polish painter d. 1842
  • March 8 – Simon Cameron, American politician d. 1889
  • March 22 – Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander, German astronomer d. 1875
  • April 12 – Henri Druey, Swiss Federal Councilor d. 1855
  • June 25 – David Douglas, Scottish-born botanist d. 1834
                                     

2.2. Births Date unknown

  • Domnița Rallou Caragea, Greek princess, independence activist d. 1870
  • James Townsend Saward, English barrister, forger
                                     

3.1. Deaths January–June

  • Frantisek Xaver Dusek, Czech composer b. 1731
  • February 12
  • January 26 – Gabriel Christie British Army officer, British Army general b. 1722
  • February 7 – Qianlong Emperor of China b. 1711
  • Lazzaro Spallanzani, Italian biologist, physiologist b. 1729
  • January 22 – Horace-Benedict de Saussure, Swiss aristocrat, alpinist b. 1740
  • February 9 – Johann Baptist Babel, Swiss sculptor b. 1716
  • January 9 – Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Italian mathematician b. 1718
  • January 18 – Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von Crantz, Luxembourgian botanist b. 1722
  • February 6 – Etienne-Louis Boullee, French architect b. 1728
  • Adam Friedrich Oeser, German etcher b. 1717
  • Charles Guillaume Le Normant dEtiolles, French official, husband of Madame de Pompadour b. 1717
  • March 18
  • March 17 – Sir Charles Thompson, 1st Baronet, British admiral, politician b. c. 1740
  • February 19 – Jean-Charles de Borda, French mathematician, physicist, political scientist, and sailor b. 1733
  • February 16 – Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria b. 1724
  • February 22 – Heshen, Manchu official under Qianlong b. 1750
  • March 13 – Richard Hotham, English property developer and politician b. 1722
  • February 24 – Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, German scientist, satirist, and Anglophile b. 1742
  • April 6 – Alexander Bezborodko, Grand Chancellor of Russia, architect of Catherine the Greats foreign policy b. 1747
  • June 24 – Dunbar Douglas, 4th Earl of Selkirk, Scottish peer b. 1722
  • May 4 – Tipu Sultan, Indian ruler b. 1750
  • March 29 – Helena Dorothea von Schonberg, German industrialist d. 1729
  • May 2 – Guemes Padilla Horcasitas, the Viceroy of New Spain b. 1740
  • April 28 – Matthew Griswold governor, 17th Governor of Connecticut 1784–1786 b. 1714
  • March 28 – Etta Palm dAelders, Dutch-French feminist b. 1743
  • May 26 – James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, Scottish jurist b. 1714
  • June 6 – Patrick Henry, American revolutionary politician, Governor of Virginia b. 1736
  • May 30 – Robert McQueen, Lord Braxfield, Scottish advocate and judge b. 1722
  • May 22 – Toypurina, Medicine woman of the Tongva nation and rebel leader b. 1750
  • May 18 – Pierre Beaumarchais, French writer b. 1732
  • April 3 – Pierre Charles Le Monnier, French astronomer b. 1715
  • June 30 – Francesco Caracciolo, Neapolitan admiral, revolutionist b. 1752
  • June 10 – Chevalier de Saint-Georges, Guadeloupe-born French musician b. 1745


                                     

3.2. Deaths July–December

  • August 31 – Nicolas-Henri Jardin, French architect b. 1720
  • August 15 – Barthelemy Catherine Joubert, French general b. 1769
  • July 7 – William Curtis, English botanist, entomologist b. 1746
  • August 29 – Pope Pius VI b. 1717
  • August 2 – Jacques Etienne Montgolfier, French inventor of the hot-air balloon, balloonist b. 1744
  • September 7
  • August 20 – Eleonora Fonseca Pimentel, Italian poet and revolutionary b. 1752
  • August 4 – John Bacon, British sculptor b. 1740
  • Louis Guillaume Lemonnier, French botanist b. 1717
  • Jan Ingenhousz, Dutch physician, physiologist, biologist, and chemist b. 1730
  • August 5 – Richard Howe, British admiral b. 1726
  • December 14 – George Washington, military leader of the American Revolution, president of the Constitutional Convention 1787, and the 1st President of the United States b. 1732
  • October 9 – Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, French priest who helped to establish the Nguyễn dynasty b. 1741
  • December 18 – Jean-Etienne Montucla, French mathematician b. 1725
  • October 24 – Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Austrian composer b. 1739
  • December 31 – Jean-François Marmontel, French historian, writer b. 1723
  • November 23 – Mark Robinson Royal Navy officer, Royal Navy admiral b. 1722
  • December 6 – Joseph Black, Scottish physician, physicist, and chemist b. 1728
  • October 6 – William Withering, British physician b. 1741
  • November 22 – Judith van Dorth, Dutch orangist b. 1747
  • October 20 – James Iredell, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States b. 1751