ⓘ Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport is one of the two international airports in Shanghai and a major aviation hub of East Asia. Pudong Airport mainly serves international flights, while the citys other major airport Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport mainly serves domestic and regional flights in East Asia. Located about 30 kilometres east of the city center, Pudong Airport occupies a 40-square-kilometre site adjacent to the coastline in eastern Pudong. The airport is operated by Shanghai Airport Authority.
The airport is the main hub for China Eastern Airlines and Shanghai Airlines, and a major international hub for Air China, as well as secondary hub for China Southern Airlines. It is also the hub for privately owned Juneyao Airlines and Spring Airlines, and an Asia-Pacific cargo hub for FedEx, UPS and DHL. The DHL hub, opened in July 2012, is reportedly the largest express hub in Asia.
Pudong Airport has two main passenger terminals, flanked on both sides by four operational parallel runways. A third passenger terminal has been planned since 2015, in addition to a satellite terminal and two additional runways, which will raise its annual capacity from 60 million passengers to 80 million, along with the ability to handle six million tons of freight.
Pudong Airport is a fast-growing hub for both passenger and cargo traffic. With 3.703.431 metric tons handled in 2017, the airport is the worlds third-busiest airport by cargo traffic. Pudong Airport also served a total of 74.006.331 passengers in 2018, making it the third-busiest airport in China after Beijing Capital and Hong Kong Airport, fifth-busiest in Asia, and the eighth-busiest in the world. It is also the busiest international gateway of mainland China, with 35.25 million international passengers. By the end of 2016, Pudong Airport hosted 104 airlines serving more than 210 destinations.
Shanghai Pudong is the busiest international hub in China, and about half of its total passenger traffic is international. Pudong Airport is connected to Shanghai Hongqiao Airport by Shanghai Metro Line 2 and the Shanghai Maglev Train via Pudong International Airport Station. There are also airport buses connecting it with the rest of the city.
1.1. History Early development
Prior to the establishment of Pudong International Airport, Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport was the primary airport of Shanghai. During the 1990s, the expansion of Hongqiao Airport to meet growing demand became impossible as the surrounding urban area was developing significantly, and an alternative to assume all international flights had to be sought.
After deliberation, the municipal government decided to adopt the suggestion from Professor Chen Jiyu of East China Normal University, who wrote a letter to the Mayor of Shanghai Xu Kuangdi suggesting that the new airport should be constructed on the tidal flats of the south bank of the Yangtze River estuary, on the coast of the Pudong development zone to the east of Shanghai.
Construction of the first phase of the new Shanghai Pudong International Airport began in October 1997, took two years to build at a cost of RMB 12 billion 1.67 billion USD, and was opened on October 1, 1999 It covers an area of 40 square kilometres 15 sq mi and is 30 kilometres 19 mi from downtown Shanghai. The first phase of the airport has one 4E category runway 4000 m x 60 m along with two parallel taxiways, an 800.000-square-metre 8.600.000 sq ft apron, seventy-six aircraft positions and a 50.000 m 2 540.000 sq ft cargo warehouse.
A second runway was opened on March 17, 2005, and construction of phase two including a second terminal, a third runway and a cargo terminal began in December 2005 and started operation on March 26, 2008, in time for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics.
In November 2011, Pudong Airport received approval from the national government for a new round of expansion which includes two runways. The 3.800-metre fourth runway, along with an auxiliary taxiway and traffic control facilities, is projected to cost 2.58 billion yuan USD 403 million. The 3.400-metre fifth runway, along with a new traffic tower, will cost 4.65 billion yuan USD 726.6 million. Construction was completed in 2015 and has doubled the capacity of the airport.
1.2. History Ongoing expansion
Pudong International Airport officially started the third phase of the Pudong International Airport expansion with the construction on a new south satellite terminal on December 29, 2015. The new satellite terminal will be the worlds largest single satellite terminal with a total construction area of 622.000 square meters, which is larger than the Pudong International Airport T2 terminal building 485.500 square meters. The satellite terminal is composed of two halls, S1 and S2, forming an H-shaped structure. It will have an annual design capacity of 38 million passengers, The total cost of the project is estimated to be about 20.6 billion yuan. Halls S1 and S2 will have 83 gates. A high capacity People mover connecting T1 to SI and T2 to S2 will be constructed. After the completion of the satellite terminal in 2019, Pudong International Airport will have an annual passenger capacity of 80 million passengers, ranking among the top ten airports in the world.
As of October 2019, the satellite S1 is in operation and connected by MRT to T1.
The airport has 70 boarding bridges along with 218 parking positions. Five runways are parallel to the terminals four operational: one 4.000-metre 13.000 ft runway with 4E rating capable of accommodating aircraft up to Boeing 747-400, two 3.800-metre 12.500 ft runways with 4F rating, and two 3.400-metre 11.200 ft runways with 4F rating.
Pudong airport currently has five runways. Rwy 35L/17R and Rwy 34R/16L are mostly used for landing while Rwy 35R/17L and Rwy 34L/16R are mostly used for takeoff. Runway 15/33 is not in operation.
2.1. Facilities Terminal 1
Terminal 1 was opened on October 1, 1999 along with a 4000-metre runway and a cargo hub. It was built to handle the demand for traffic and to relieve Shanghai Hongqiao International Airports traffic. The exterior of Terminal 1 is shaped like a seagull, and has 28 gates, 13 of which are double-decker gates. The capacity of Terminal 1 is 20 million passengers. It currently has 204 check-in counters, thirteen luggage conveying belts and covers an area of 280.000 square metres.
The gates for Terminal 1 is 1–12, 14–29 linked with jetway, while the remote gates are 201–211, 533–543, 115–117, 201–211, 251–255, 256–258, and 511–521.
2.2. Facilities Terminal 2
Terminal 2, opened to public and officially opened on March 26, 2008, along with the third runway, is capable of handling 60 million passengers and 4.2 million tons of cargo annually. Terminal 2 is shaped like Terminal 1, although it more closely resembles a wave, and is slightly larger than Terminal 1. Terminal 2 also has more floor areas than Terminal 1. Terminal 2 is primarily used by Air China and other Star Alliance members.
The gates for Terminal 2 are 50–65, 67–79, 80–98 Note that gates 58–90 are used by both the C gates used for domestic flights and the D gates used for international flights. The gates between gates 65–79 are only odd numbered 65, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79. Gates 50–57 and gates 92–98 are used for C gates only. The remote gates for Terminal 2 are 581–586, 589–590, 593–600, 801–816.
2.3. Facilities Satellite concourses
Construction on an additional satellite concourse facility that could accommodate further gates and terminal space started on December 29, 2015 and was inaugurated in September 2019. It is the largest stand-alone satellite terminal in the world. This project will support 38 million passengers annually through 83 departure gates across two S1 and S2 concourses. These will be connected by an underground automated people mover to the current T1 and T2 terminals.
2.4. Facilities A-CDM implementation
The airport has been using the Airport Collaborative Decision Making system A-CDM developed by the aviation data service company VariFlight since January 2017. The system is aimed to improve on-time performance and safety of the airports operations. By June 2017, Shanghai Pudong airport recorded 62.7% punctuality rate, which was a 15% increase compared to the same period previous year.
3.1. Ground transportation Highway
- North: S1 Yingbin Expressway and Huaxia Elevated Road
- South: Shanghai–Jiaxing–Huzhou Expressway and G1501 Shanghai Ring Expressway
3.2. Ground transportation Maglev train
- Maglev ：Starting service on January 29, 2004, as the first commercial high-speed maglev railway in the world, Shanghai Maglev Train links Pudong International Airport with Longyang Road Metro Station, where transfer to Line 2, Line 7, and Line 16 is possible. The 30 km 19 mi ride from Longyang Road Metro station to Pudong International Airport typically takes less than eight minutes, with the maximum speed reaching 431 km/h 268 mph. Trains operate every 15 minutes; therefore passengers can expect to arrive in less than 25 minutes, waiting time included.
All cars are equipped with racks and space designated for luggage.
3.3. Ground transportation Future plan
The plan for building a new commuter railway line connecting the airport with Hongqiao Airport, Airport Link, has been formally established in 2015 and approved in December 2018 by National Development and Reform Commission. This railway starts from Shanghai East railway station under planning, via Disneyland, Zhangjiang and Sanlin in Pudong, Xujing in Xuhui and Qibao in Minhang. It will use the unused area in Hongqiao Railway Station originally for Maglev for its station at Hongqiao Transportation Hub.
3.4. Ground transportation Airport buses
Eight airport bus lines serve the airport, providing rapid links to various destinations.
- Airport Bus Route 9: To Xinzhuang Metro Station
- Airport Bus Route 2: To Jingan Temple City Terminal Hub
- Airport Bus Route 5: To Shanghai Railway Station, via Longyang Road Metro Station, Century Avenue at South Pudong Road Lujiazui and East Yanan Road at Middle Zhejiang Road Peoples Square
- Airport Bus Route 4: To Hongkou Stadium Hub Huayuan Road, via Deping Road at Pudong Avenue, Wujiaochang and Dabaishu
- Airport Bus Route 7: To Shanghai South Railway Station, via West Huaxia Road at Shangnan Road and East Huaxia Road at Chuansha Road Chuansha
- Airport Bus Ring Route 1: To Hangchengyuan Shiwan, via stops in Airport Workplace
- Airport Bus Route 1: To Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station via Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport
- Airport Bus Route 8: To Nanhui Coach and Bus Station
4. Accidents and incidents
- On November 28, 2009, Avient Aviation Flight 324, an Avient Aviation McDonnell Douglas MD-11F cargo plane registered to Zimbabwe registration: Z-BAV departing for Kyrgyzstan crashed into a warehouse near the runway of the airport due to a tailstrike that caught fire during takeoff and broke into several pieces with seven people on board. Three people died and four were injured.