ⓘ 1796

                                     

ⓘ 1796

1796 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1796th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 796th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1796, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

                                     

1.1. Events January–March

  • February 16 – The Kingdom of Great Britain is granted control of Ceylon by the Dutch.
  • February 15 – French Revolutionary Wars: The Invasion of Ceylon 1795 ends when Johan van Angelbeek, the Batavian governor of Ceylon, surrenders Colombo peacefully to British forces.
  • March 30 – Carl Gauss obtains conditions for the constructibility by ruler and compass of regular polygons, and is able to announce that the regular 17-gon is constructible by ruler and compasses.
  • March 9 – Widow Josephine de Beauharnais marries General Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • February 1 – The capital of Upper Canada is moved from Newark to York.
  • February 9 – The Qianlong Emperor of China abdicates at age 84 to make way for his son, the Jiaqing Emperor.
  • February 29 – Ratifications of the Jay Treaty between Great Britain and the United States are officially exchanged, bringing it into effect.
  • January 16 – The first Dutch and general elections are held for the National Assembly of the Batavian Republic. The next Dutch general elections are held in 1888.
  • March 20 – The U.S. House of Representatives demands that the U.S. State Department supply it with documents relating to the negotiation of the Jay Treaty; President Washington declines the request, citing that only the U.S. Senate has jurisdiction over treaties.
  • March 26 – Napoleon Bonaparte arrives at Nice to take command of the Army of Italy 37.000 men and 60 guns, which is scattered in detachments as far as Genoa.
                                     

1.2. Events April–June

  • April 28 – In an impassioned speech, U.S. Representative Fisher Ames of Massachusetts persuades his fellow members of the House to support the Jay Treaty.
  • War of the First Coalition – Battle of Lodi: General Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Austrian rearguard, in forcing a crossing of the bridge over the Adda River in Italy. The Austrians lose some 2.000 men, 14 guns, and 30 ammunition wagons.
  • Persian Expedition of 1796: Russian troops storm Derbent.
  • April 2 – The only night of the supposed Shakespearean play Vortigern and Rowena actually written by William Henry Ireland ends in the audiences laughter.
  • April 26 – The French proclaim the Republic of Alba on the occupied territories. Two days later, King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia signs the Armistice of Cherasco, in the headquarters of Napoleon. The fortresses of Coni, Tortoni and Alessandria, with all their guns, are given up.
  • April 27 – Case of the Lyons Mail: During the night, five highwaymen attack the mail between Paris and Lyon, kill the postmen and steal the funds sent to the armies in Italy.
  • April 12 – War of the First Coalition – Battle of Montenotte: Napoleon Bonaparte gains his first victory as an army commander.
  • May 6 – Napoleon Bonaparte forms an advanced guard 3.500 infantry and 1.500 cavalry under General Claude Dallemagne. He sends this force along the south bank of the Po River, to cross it with boats at Piacenza.
  • May 10
  • June 1
  • May 14 – Edward Jenner administers the first smallpox vaccination, in England.
  • Tennessee is admitted as the 16th U.S. state.
  • May 20 – The last mock Garrat Elections are held in Surrey, England.
  • May 15 – Napoleons troops take Milan.
  • The French-Republican army divisions of the Army of Italy invade the territories of the Serenissima Repubblica di San Marco.
  • June 23 – Napoleon Bonaparte seizes the Papal States, which become part of the revolutionary Cisalpine Republic. Pope Pius VI signs the Armistice of Bologna, and is forced to pay a contribution 34 million francs.
  • June 21 – British explorer Mungo Park becomes the first European to reach the Niger River.
  • June 6–7 – Ragunda lake in Sweden bursts and drains completely leaving the Doda fallet dry.
                                     

1.3. Events July–September

  • July 22 – Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio Cleveland, after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.
  • September 15 – Siege of Mantua: Napoleon Bonaparte fights a pitched battle at La Favorita on the east side of the Mincio River. The Austrians withdraw into the fortress of Mantua, which is crowded nearly with 30.000 men. Within six weeks, 4.000 die from wounds or sickness.
  • August 5 – French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Castiglione – The French Army of Italy under Napoleon defeats the Habsburg army 25.000 men under Marshal Wurmser, who thus fails to break the Siege of Mantua 1796–97, and is forced to retreat north up the Adige Valley.
  • August 4 – French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Lonato – The French Army of Italy under Napoleon crushes an Austrian brigade.
  • September 17 – U.S. President George Washington issues his Farewell Address, which warns against partisan politics and foreign entanglements. In addition, he sets a precedent by declining to run for a third term.
  • September 2 – Jewish emancipation in the Batavian Republic Netherlands.
  • July 21 – Mungo Park reaches Segou, the capital of the Bamana Empire.
  • August 9 – The Wearmouth Bridge in England, designed by Thomas Paine in cast iron, opens to traffic. Its span of 72 m 236 ft makes it the worlds longest single-span vehicular bridge extant at this date.
  • July 11 – The United States takes possession of Detroit from Great Britain, under the terms of the Jay Treaty.
  • July 29 – The Habsburg army under Marshal Wurmser advances from the Alps, and captures Rivoli and Verona. The French abandon the east bank of the Mincio River, the outnumbered division 15.000 men of Massena retreats towards Lake Garda.
  • July 10 – Carl Friedrich Gauss discovers that every positive integer is representable as a sum of at most 3 triangular numbers.
  • September 8 – French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Bassano – French forces 20.000 men under Andre Massena defeat the Austrians in Veneto. Wurmser retreats towards Vicenza with just 3.500 men of his originally 11.000 left to him.
  • August 10 – A mob of peasants overtakes the Convent of St. Peter Bludenz, Austria and murders Ignaz Anton von Indermauer.
  • August 19 – Second Treaty of San Ildefonso: Spain and France form an alliance against Great Britain.
  • September 28 – Empress Catherine the Great signs an agreement with Great Britain, formally joining Russia to the coalition.


                                     

1.4. Events October–December

  • October – Jane Austen begins writing her first draft of Pride and Prejudice, under the title First Impressions the book will not be published until 1813.
  • October 19 – French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of Emmendingen – Austrian forces force the French to retreat, but commanding generals on both sides are killed.
  • November 4 – The Treaty of Tripoli between the United States and Tripoli is signed at Tripoli see also 1797.
  • Catherine the Great dies, and is succeeded by her son Paul I of Russia. His wife Sophie Marie Dorothea of Wurttemberg becomes Empress consort.
  • November 3 – John Adams defeats Thomas Jefferson, in the U.S. presidential election.
  • November 6
  • French forces 9.500 men under Massena attack the Austrian army at Fontaniva. After a desperate assault he is outnumbered, and forced to retreat to Verona.
  • Battle of Caldiero: French forces are defeated by the Austrians at Caldiero, and pushed back to Verona. This marks Napoleons first defeat, losing nearly 2.000 men and 2 guns.
  • Groton, New Hampshire is incorporated as a town.
  • November 12
  • November 17 – Battle of Arcole: French forces under General Napoleon defeat the Austrians at Arcole. After a bold maneuver, he outflanks the Austrian army 24.000 men under Freiherr Jozsef Alvinczi, and cuts off its line of retreat. Alvinczi is forced to take up a defensive position behind the Brenta River.
  • December 18 – British Royal Navy ship HMS Courageux is wrecked on the Barbary Coast with the loss of 464 of the 593 onboard.
  • December 7 – The U.S. Electoral College meets to elect John Adams president of the United States.
  • December – The British government begins work on a 40-acre 162.000 m² site at Norman Cross, for the worlds first purpose-built prisoner-of-war camp.
                                     

1.5. Events Date unknown

  • Annual British iron production reaches 125.000 tons.
  • Rizla rolling papers established.
  • The Spanish government lifts the restrictions against neutrals trading with the colonies, thus acknowledging Spains inability to supply the colonies with needed goods and markets.
  • Robert Burnss version of the Scots poem Auld Lang Syne is first published, in this years volume of The Scots Musical Museum.
                                     

2. Births

  • January 23 – Karl Ernst Claus, Baltic-German chemist, naturalist d. 1864
  • January 7 – Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, daughter and only child of future King George IV d. 1817
  • Frederick William Beechey, English naval officer, geographer d. 1856
  • Philipp Franz von Siebold, German physician, botanist and explorer d. 1866
  • February 17
  • January 25 – William MacGillivray, Scottish naturalist, ornithologist d. 1852
  • October 23 – Stefano Franscini, member of the Swiss Federal Council d. 1857
  • May 4 – Horace Mann, American educator, abolitionist d. 1859
  • May 7 – Frances Catherine Barnard, English author d. 1869
  • August 25 – James Lick, American land speculator d. 1876
  • June 1 – Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot, French military engineer and physicist; father of thermodynamics d. 1832
  • July 6 – Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, Russian officer d. 1855
  • March 18 – Jakob Steiner, Swiss mathematician d. 1863
  • April 30 – Adolphe Cremieux, French-Jewish politician, abolitionist d. 1880
  • July 22 – Carlo Pepoli, Italian politician, journalist d. 1881
  • June 12 – George Bush biblical scholar, American professor of Asian languages d. 1859
  • May 2 – Colm de Bhailis, Irish poet and songwriter d. 1906
  • September 22 – David Canabarro, Brazilian Gaucho revolutionary d. 1867
  • June 28 – Caroline Amalie of Augustenburg, queen consort of Denmark d. 1881
  • December 17 – Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Canadian author d. 1865
  • July 15 – Gustav Seyffarth, German-American Egyptologist d. 1885
  • December 19 – Manuel Breton de los Herreros, Spanish playwright d. 1873
  • June 14 – Nikolai Brashman, Russian mathematician of Czech origin d. 1866
  • December 27 – Mirza Ghalib, Persian poet of Urdu d. 1869
  • November 25 – Andreas von Ettingshausen, German mathematician, physicist d. 1878
  • July 16 – Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, French painter d. 1875
  • November 30 – Carl Loewe, German composer d. 1869
  • May 1 – Junius Brutus Booth, English stage actor, father of Edwin Booth and John Wilkes Booth d. 1852
  • September 10 – Eugenie Niboyet, French author, feminist d. 1883
  • February 22 – Adolphe Quetelet, Belgian mathematician d. 1874
  • August 15 – John Torrey, American botanist d. 1873
  • July 23 – Franz Berwald, Swedish composer d. 1868
  • September 25 – Antoine-Louis Barye, French sculptor d. 1875
  • September 19 – Hartley Coleridge, British poet d. 1849
Date unknown
  • Edwin Beard Budding, English engineer and inventor of the Lawnmower d. 1846
  • Du Bois Agett, early settler of Western Australia d. 1866


                                     

3.1. Deaths January–March

  • Giambattista Vasco, Italian economist b. 1733
  • Alexandre-Theophile Vandermonde French musician and chemist b. 1735
  • January 1
  • February 28 – Friedrich Wilhelm Rust, German violinist b. 1739
  • February 17 – James Macpherson, Scottish writer b. 1736
  • February 7 – Sir Francis Geary, 1st Baronet, officer of the British Royal Navy b. 1709
  • January 13 – John Anderson, Scottish scientist and inventor b. 1726
  • February 14 – Samuel Pegge, English antiquary b. 1704
  • February 15 – John Caesar Australian bushranger of African descent b. 1763
  • January 5 – Anna Barbara Reinhart, Swiss mathematician b. 1730
  • February 25 – Jean-Nicolas Stofflet, French royalist general executed b. 1751
  • March 6 – Guillaume Thomas François Raynal, French writer, man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment b. 1713
  • John Forbes, British Royal Navy officer b. 1714
  • March 3 – Pierre-Rene Rogue, French Catholic priest, member of the Congregation of the Mission b. 1758
  • March 1 – Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz, Swedish architect and civil servant b. 1716
  • January 5 – Samuel Huntington, Connecticut jurist b. 1731
  • March 10
  • William Chambers, Scottish-Swedish architect b. 1723
  • March 16 – Joseph Gerrald, Scottish political reformer b. 1763
  • March 19 – Hugh Palliser, British naval officer, administrator b. 1722
  • March 30 – Princess Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt b. 1765
  • March 12 – Franz Topsl, Augustinian Canon Regular b. 1711
  • March 26 – François de Charette, French Royalist soldier, politician b. 1763


                                     

3.2. Deaths April–June

  • May 6 – Adolph Freiherr Knigge, German writer, Freemason b. 1752
  • April 16 – Molly Brant Mohawk United Empire Loyalist d. c.1736
  • June 8
  • May 2 – Juan Garcia Ruiz, bishop of Nueva Segovia 1784–1796 b. 1728
  • May 13 – John Butler, Loyalist who led an irregular militia unit during the American Revolutionary War b. 1728
  • May 1 – Alexandre Guy Pingre, Catholic priest and scientist b. 1711
  • May 29 – Carl Fredrik Pechlin, Swedish politician and demagogue b. 1720
  • April 17 – Raja Chamaraja Wodeyar IX of Mysore b. 1774
  • April 30 – Franciszka Corvin-Krasinska, Polish noblewoman, morganatic wife of Charles of Saxony b. 1742
  • Jean-Marie Collot dHerbois, French revolutionary b. 1749
  • May 17 – Gotthard Friedrich Stender, Baltic-German Lutheran priest who played an outstanding role in Latvias history of culture b. 1714
  • June 7 – Elisabetta Caminer Turra, Venetian writer b. 1751
  • Felice Giardini, Italian composer, violinist b. 1716
  • May 12 – Johann Uz, German poet b. 1720
  • April 11 – François-Antoine Devaux, French writer b. 1712
  • April 2 – Ulrika Pasch, Swedish rococo painter and miniaturist b. 1735
  • April 9 – Frederick Albert, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg, German prince of the House of Ascania b. 1735
  • April 6 – George Campbell, Scottish minister b. 1719
  • May 28 – Caroline of Stolberg-Gedern, Princess of Stolberg-Gerdern by birth and by marriage a princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg b. 1732
  • Samuel Whitbread, English brewer, politician b. 1720
  • June 11
  • Nathaniel Gorham, Massachusetts politician, merchant b. 1738
  • June 9 – Jose Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, patron of the artist Francisco Goya b. 1756
  • June 14
  • John Laforey, British naval officer b. 1729
  • Charles Albert II, Prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfurst, 3rd Prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfurst from 1793 to 1796 b. 1742
  • Walter Stewart, Irish-born American general during the American Revolutionary War b. 1756
  • June 16
  • Charles of Saxony, Duke of Courland, German prince from the House of Wettin and Duke of Courland b. 1733
  • June 21 – Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier b. 1710
  • June 19 – Consider Tiffany, British loyalist b. 1732
  • June 28 – Antonio Maria Lorgna, Italian mathematician b. 1735
  • June 25 – Johann Philipp Siebenkees, German philosopher b. 1759
  • June 26 – David Rittenhouse, American astronomer, inventor, mathematician, surveyor, scientific instrument craftsman and public official b. 1732
  • June 30 – Abraham Yates Jr., American lawyer, civil servant from Albany b. 1724
                                     

3.3. Deaths July–September

  • Adam Naruszewicz, Polish-Lithuanian nobleman b. 1733
  • John Mills, American soldier, officer b. 1754
  • July 8
  • July 16
  • William Gerard Hamilton, English statesman b. 1729
  • George Howard, British field marshal b. 1718
  • July 20 – John Houstoun, American lawyer, statesman from Savannah b. 1744
  • Robert Burns, Scottish poet b. 1759
  • July 21
  • July 17 – John Christopher Hartwick, Lutheran minister in Colonial America, founder of Hartwick College b. 1714
  • Philip Carteret, British naval officer, explorer in two circumnavigation expeditions b. 1733
  • August 1
  • Robert Pigot, 2nd Baronet, British Army officer during the American Revolutionary War b. 1720
  • Sir Robert Pigot, 2nd Baronet, British army officer b. 1720
  • August 12 – Mary Ann Wrighten, English singer, actress b. 1751
  • September 7 – Henri François Lambert, brigadier general of the French revolutionary army b. 1760
  • August 31 – John McKinly, American physician, politician from Wilmington b. 1721
  • Juan Jose Elhuyar, Spanish chemist, mineralogist b. 1754
  • September 20
  • August 10 – Ignaz Anton von Indermauer, Austrian nobleman from Tyrol, Landvogte and Kreishauptmann of Vorarlberg b. 1759
  • September 11 – Anna Barbara Gignoux, German industrialist b. 1725
  • August 2 – Sarah Osborn, American writer b. 1714
  • Christian Febiger, American Revolutionary War commander b. 1749
  • August 25 – Isaac Parsons, American planter b. 1752
  • September 1 – David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield b. 1727
  • September 29 – Henry Hamilton, Anglo-Irish soldier, government official of the British Empire b. c. 1734
  • September 27 – Jonathan Sewall, last British attorney general of Massachusetts b. 1729
  • September 21 – François Severin Marceau-Desgraviers, French revolutionary general killed in battle b. 1769
                                     

3.4. Deaths October–December

  • Antoine-Joseph Pernety, French writer b. 1716
  • Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia b. 1726
  • October 7 – Thomas Reid, religiously trained Scottish philosopher b. 1710
  • October 10 – Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel b. 1729
  • October 16
  • Velu Nachiyar, Indian queen of Sivaganga estate 1760–1790 b. 1730
  • Bengt Anders Euphrasen, Swedish botanist b. 1756
  • December 2 – Jean Charles Abbatucci, French general during the War of the First Coalition b. 1771
  • December 5 – George Mason V, American planter, businessman b. 1753
  • December 25
  • October 30 – Archibald Montgomerie, 11th Earl of Eglinton, Scottish general b. 1726
  • November 17 – Empress Catherine II of Russia b. 1729
  • December 19 – Pyotr Rumyantsev, Russian general b. 1725
  • November 19 – Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath b. 1734
  • November 8 – King Ang Eng of Cambodia b. 1773
  • December 12 – William Buller, English clergyman b. 1735
  • December 10 – Israel Jacobs, colonial Pennsylvania Legislator and United States Representative from Pennsylvania b. 1726
  • December 16 – Johann Daniel Titius, German astronomer, professor at Wittenberg b. 1729
  • December 15 – Anthony Wayne, United States Army officer, statesman, and member of the United States House of Representatives b. 1745
  • December 18 – Lord John Cavendish, British nobleman, statesman b. 1732
  • December 28 – Prince Louis Charles of Prussia, son of Frederick William II of Prussia and Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt b. 1773