ⓘ MPLA

                                     

ⓘ MPLA

The Peoples Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the Peoples Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party, is a political party that has ruled Angola since the countrys independence from Portugal in 1975. The MPLA fought against the Portuguese army in the Angolan War of Independence of 1961–74, and defeated the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola and the National Liberation Front of Angola, two other anti-colonial movements, in the Angolan Civil War of 1975–2002.

                                     

1. Formation

On December 10, 1956, in Estado Novo-ruled Portuguese Angola, the tiny underground Angolan Communist Party PCA merged with the Party of the United Struggle for Africans in Angola PLUA to form the Peoples Movement for the Liberation of Angola, with Viriato da Cruz, the President of the PCA, as Secretary General. Later other groups merged into MPLA, such as Movement for the National Independence of Angola MINA and the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Angola FDLA.

The MPLAs core base includes the Ambundu ethnic group and the educated intelligentsia of the capital city, Luanda. The party formerly had links to European and Soviet communist parties but is now a full-member of the Socialist International grouping of social democratic parties. The armed wing of MPLA was the Peoples Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola FAPLA. The FAPLA later became the national armed forces of the country.

In 1961, the MPLA joined the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde PAIGC, its fraternal party in Guinea-Bissau and Cabo Verde, in direct combat against the Portuguese empire in Africa. The following year, the expanded umbrella group Conference of Nationalist Organizations of the Portuguese Colonies CONCP replaced FRAIN, adding FRELIMO of Mozambique and the CLSTP, forerunner of the Movement for the Liberation of São Tome and Principe MLSTP.

In the early 1970s, the MPLAs guerrilla activities were more and more reduced, due to the "counter-insurgency" campaigns of the Portuguese military. At the same time, internal conflicts caused the movement to temporarily split up into three factions Ala Presicencialista, Revolta Activa and Revolta do Leste – a situation which was overcome in 1974/75, but left profound scars.

                                     

2. Independence and civil war

The Carnation Revolution in Lisbon, Portugal in 1974 established a military government that promptly ceased anti-independence fighting in Angola and agreed to hand over power to a coalition of three pro-independence Angolan movements. The coalition quickly broke down and the newly independent Angola broke into a state of civil war. Maintaining control over Luanda and the lucrative oil fields of the Atlantic coastline, Agostinho Neto, the leader of the MPLA, declared the independence of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Angola as the Peoples Republic of Angola on November 11, 1975, in accordance with the Alvor Accords. UNITA and FNLA together declared Angolan independence in Huambo. These differences reignited civil war between UNITA & FNLA and the MPLA, with the latter winning the upper hand. Agostinho Neto became the first president upon independence, and he was succeeded after his death by Jose Eduardo dos Santos in 1979.

In 1974/76, South Africa intervened militarily in favor of FNLA and UNITA, and Zaire and the United States also heavily aided the two groups. Cuba deployed thousands of troops in 1975 to aid the MPLA against South African intervention, with the Soviet Union aiding both Cuba and the MPLA government during the war. In November 1980, the MPLA had all but pushed UNITA into the bush, and the South African forces withdrew. The United States Congress barred further U.S. military involvement in the country against the wishes of President Ronald Reagan, fearing another Vietnam-style quagmire. In 1976 the FNLA withdrew its troops to their bases in Zaire, while part of them joined the 32 Battalion formed by South Africa in order to receive anti-MPLA Angolans.

At its first congress, in 1977, the MPLA adopted Marxism–Leninism as the party ideology and added Partido do Trabalho Labour Party to its name.

After Nito Alvess attempted coup in 1977, Neto ordered the killing of suspected followers and sympathisers of "orthodox communism" inside and outside the party. During the coup, Cuban forces stationed in Angola sided with the MPLA leadership against the coup organizers. Estimates for the number of Nito Alves followers killed by Cuban and MPLA troops in the aftermath, range from 2.000 to 70.000 dead, with some placing the death toll at 18.000 killed. After the violent internal conflict called Fractionism, it made it clear that it would follow the socialist, not the communist, model. However, it maintained close ties with the Soviet Union and the Communist bloc, establishing socialist economic policies and a one-party state. Several thousand Cuban troops remained in the country to combat UNITA fighters and bolster the regimes security.

In 1990, when the Cold War ended, MPLA abandoned its Marxist–Leninist ideology and on its third congress, in December, the party declared democratic socialism to be its official ideology.

The MPLA emerged victorious in Angolas 1992 general election, but eight opposition parties rejected the election as rigged. UNITA sent negotiators to the Luanda, where they were killed. As a consequence, hostilities erupted in the city, and immediately spread to other parts of the country. Tens of thousands of UNITA and FNLA sympathizers were subsequently killed nationwide by MPLA forces, in what is known as the Halloween Massacre, and the civil war resumed. The war continued until 2002, when UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi was killed. The two parties promptly agreed to a ceasefire, and a plan was laid out for UNITA to demobilize and become a political party. Over 500.000 civilians were killed during the civil war. Human rights observers have accused the MPLA of "genocidal atrocities," "systematic extermination," "war crimes" and "crimes against humanity during the civil war." Political scientist Rudolph Rummel estimated that the MPLA were responsible for between 100.000 and 200.000 deaths in democide from 1975 to 1987.

                                     

3. Electoral history

In the 1992 elections, MPLA-PT won 53.74% of the votes and 129 out of 227 seats in parliament; however, eight opposition parties rejected the 1992 elections as rigged. In the next election, delayed until 2008 due to the civil war, the MPLA won 81.64% of the vote and 191 out of 220 parliamentary seats. In the 2012 legislative election, the party won 71.84% of the vote and 175 of 220 parliamentary seats.

                                     

4. Human rights record

The MPLA government of Angola has been accused of human rights violations such as arbitrary arrest and detention and torture by international organisations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. In response, the MPLA hired Samuels International Associates Inc to help improve Angolas global image.

                                     

5. Party organizations

At present, major mass organizations of the MPLA-PT include the Organização da Mulher Angolana Angolan Womens Organization, União Nacional dos Trabalhadores Angolanos National Union of Angolan Workers, Organização de Pioneiros de Agostinho Neto Agostinho Neto Pioneer Organization, and the Juventude do MPLA Youth of MPLA.

                                     

6. Foreign support

During both the Portuguese Colonial War and the Angolan Civil War, the MPLA received military and humanitarian support primarily from the governments of Algeria, the Bulgarian Peoples Republic, East Germany, Cape Verde Islands, Communist Czechoslovakia, the Congo, Cuba, Guinea-Bissau, Morocco, the Mozambican Peoples Republic, Nigeria, North Korea, the Polish Peoples Republic, China, the Romanian Socialist Republic, São Tome and Principe, Somalia, the Soviet Union, Sudan, Tanzania, Libya and Communist Yugoslavia. While China did briefly support the MPLA, it also actively supported the MPLAs enemies, the FNLA and later UNITA, during the war for independence and the civil war. The switch was the result of tensions between China and the Soviet Union for dominance of the communist bloc, which almost led to war.



                                     
  • The Youth of MPLA in Portuguese, Juventude do MPLA JMPLA is a major mass organization within the People s Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party
  • The Mountain Plains Library Association MPLA is a non - profit organization based in the western United States that promotes the development of librarians
  • became the Chairman of the People s Movement for the Liberation of Angola MPLA the ruling party. He was the party s Secretary - General from 1998 to 2003
  • Movement for the Liberation of Angola MPLA in the Angolan War for Independence 1961 1975 and then against the MPLA in the ensuing civil war 1975 2002
  • FAA and President of the People s Movement for the Liberation of Angola MPLA the party that has ruled Angola since it gained independence in 1975. He
  • the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola MPLA in 1974. He has been a member of the MPLA s central committee since 1998. Since joining the party
  • Liberation of Angola s MPLA field commander in the Eastern Front before founding and leading the Eastern Revolt, a faction of the MPLA He later joined the
  • Secretary of the MPLA during the Angolan War of Independence and Angolan Civil War. Lara, a founding member of the MPLA led the first MPLA members into Luanda
  • 1971, Piedade joined the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola MPLA Following Angola s independence from Portugal in 1975 he began a career
  • Constitution. The ruling party MPLA headed by João Lourenço was widely expected to win. Preliminary results show that MPLA won with a clear margin. The
  • Portuguese government, the People s Movement for the Liberation of Angola MPLA the National Liberation Front of Angola FNLA National Union for the
  • the Liberation of Angola MPLA in the September 2008 parliamentary election. He won a seat in this election, in which the MPLA won an overwhelming majority