ⓘ 1920s

1929

1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1929th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 929th year of the 2nd millennium, the 29th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1920s decade. During the year 1929, there were two solar eclipses and two penumbral lunar eclipses: 1929 May 23 = Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 1929 May 9 = Total Solar Eclipse 1929 November 17 = Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 1929 November 1 = Annular Solar Eclipse This year marked the end of a period known in American history as the Roaring Twenties after the Wall ...

1920

1920 was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1920th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 920th year of the 2nd millennium, the 20th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1920s decade. As of the start of 1920, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1921

1921 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1921st year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 921st year of the 2nd millennium, the 21st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1920s decade. As of the start of 1921, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1922

1922 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1922nd year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 922nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 22nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1920s decade. As of the start of 1922, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1923

1923 was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1923rd year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 923rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 23rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1920s decade. As of the start of 1923, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which was relegated that February to use only by churches after Greece adopted the Gregorian calendar.

1924

1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1924th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 924th year of the 2nd millennium, the 24th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1920s decade.

1925

1925 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1925th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 925th year of the 2nd millennium, the 25th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1920s decade.

1926

1926 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1926th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 926th year of the 2nd millennium, the 26th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1920s decade.

1927

1927 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1927th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 927th year of the 2nd millennium, the 27th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1920s decade.

1928

1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1928th year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 928th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1920s decade.

                                     

ⓘ 1920s

The 1920s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1920, and ended on December 31, 1929. In North America, it is frequently referred to as the "Roaring Twenties" or the "Jazz Age", while in Europe the period is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age Twenties" because of the economic boom following World War I. French speakers refer to the period as the "Annees folles", emphasizing the eras social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.

The economic prosperity experienced by many countries during the 1920s especially the United States was similar in nature to that experienced in the 1950s and 1990s. Each period of prosperity was the result of a paradigm shift in global affairs. These shifts in the 1920s, 1950s, and 1990s, occurred in part as the result of the conclusion of World War I and Spanish flu, World War II, and the Cold War, respectively.

The 1920s saw foreign oil companies begin operations throughout South America. Venezuela became the worlds second largest oil producing nation.

In some countries the 1920s saw the rise of radical political movements, especially in regions that were once part of empires. Communism spread as a consequence of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks victory in the Russian Civil War. Fear of the spread of Communism led to the emergence of far right political movements and fascism in Europe. Economic problems contributed to the emergence of dictators in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, to include Jozef Pilsudski in the Second Polish Republic, and Peter and Alexander Karadordevic in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

The devastating Wall Street Crash in October 1929 is generally viewed as a harbinger of the end of 1920s prosperity in North America and Europe.

                                     

1. Social history

The Roaring Twenties brought about several novel and highly visible social and cultural trends. These trends, made possible by sustained economic prosperity, were most visible in major cities like New York, Chicago, Paris, Berlin and London. "Normalcy" returned to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional patriotism during World War I, jazz blossomed, and Art Deco peaked. For women, knee-length skirts and dresses became socially acceptable, as did bobbed hair with a marcel wave. The women who pioneered these trends were frequently referred to as flappers.

The era saw the large-scale adoption of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, radio and household electricity, as well as unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media began to focus on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars. Large baseball stadiums were built in major U.S. cities, in addition to palatial cinemas.

Most independent countries passed womens suffrage after 1918, especially as a reward for womens support of the war effort and endurance of its deaths and hardships.

                                     

2. Politics and wars

Major political changes

  • Rise of radical political movements such as communism and fascism, amid the economic and political turmoil after World War I and after the stock market crash
                                     

2.1. Politics and wars Wars

  • Franco-Turkish War December 1918 – October 1921
  • Turkish–Armenian War September – December 1920
  • Turkish War of Independence
  • Royalist and separatist revolts 1919 – 1923
  • Greco-Turkish War May 1919 – October 1922
  • Rashidi-Saudi War 1903 – 1921
  • Transjordan-Saudi War 1922 – 1924
  • Kuwait-Saudi War 1919 – 1920
  • Hejaz-Saudi War 1919 – 1925
  • Unification of Saudi Arabia
  • Pacification of Libya 1923 – 1932
  • Rif War 1920 – 1927
  • United States occupation of the Dominican Republic 1916 – 1924
  • United States occupation of Haiti 1915 – 1934
  • Irish War of Independence January 1919 – July 1921
  • Iraqi revolt against the British 1920
  • Polish–Soviet War February 1919 – March 1922
  • United States occupation of Nicaragua 1912 – 1933
                                     

2.2. Politics and wars Major political changes

  • Rise of radical political movements such as communism and fascism, amid the economic and political turmoil after World War I and after the stock market crash
                                     

2.3. Politics and wars Decolonization and independence

  • Egypt officially becomes an independent country through the Declaration of 1922, though it still remains under the military and political influence of the British Empire.
  • Irish Free State gains independence from the United Kingdom in 1922.
                                     

2.4. Politics and wars Prominent political events

  • Kellogg–Briand Pact to end war
  • Women begin to enter the workplace in larger numbers
  • Womens suffrage movement continues to make gains as women obtain full voting rights in New Zealand 1893, the Grand Duchy of Finland 1906, Denmark 1915, the United Kingdom in 1918 women over 30 and in 1928 full enfranchisement, and in the United States in 1920


                                     

2.5. Politics and wars North America

  • The major sport was baseball and the most famous player was Babe Ruth.
  • The Immigration Act of 1924 places restrictions on immigration. National quotas curbed most Eastern and Southern European nationalities, further enforced the ban on immigration of East Asians, Indians and Africans, and put mild regulations on nationalities from the Western Hemisphere Latin Americans.
  • The Lost Generation which characterized disillusionment, was the name Gertrude Stein gave to American writers, poets, and artists living in Europe during the 1920s. Famous members of the Lost Generation include Cole Porter, Gerald Murphy, Patrick Henry Bruce, Waldo Peirce, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Zelda Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound, John Dos Passos, and Sherwood Anderson.
  • The Scopes Trial 1925, which declared that John T. Scopes had violated the law by teaching evolution in schools, creating tension between the competing theories of creationism and evolutionism.
  • A peak in the early 1920s in the membership of the Ku Klux Klan of four to five million members after its reemergence in 1915, followed by a rapid decline down to an estimated 30.000 members by 1930.
  • Prohibition of alcohol occurs in the United States. Prohibition in the United States began January 16, 1919, with the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S.Constitution, effective as of January 17, 1920, and it continued throughout the 1920s. Prohibition was finally repealed in 1933. Organized crime turns to smuggling and bootlegging of liquor, led by figures such as Al Capone, boss of the Chicago Outfit.


                                     

2.6. Politics and wars Europe

  • Benito Mussolini leader of the National Fascist Party became Prime Minister of Italy, shortly thereafter creating the worlds first fascist government. The Fascist regime establishes a totalitarian state led by Mussolini as a dictator. The Fascist regime restores good relations between the Roman Catholic Church and Italy with the Lateran Treaty, which creates Vatican City. The Fascist regime pursues an aggressive expansionist agenda in Europe such as by raiding the Greek island of Corfu in 1923, pressuring Albania to submit to becoming a de facto Italian protectorate in the mid-1920s, and holding territorial aims on the region of Dalmatia in Yugoslavia.
  • In Germany, the Weimar Republic suffers from economic crisis in the early 1920s and hyperinflation of currency in 1923. From 1923 to 1925 the Occupation of the Ruhr takes place. The Ruhr was an industrial region of Germany taken over by the military forces of the French Third Republic and Belgium, in response to the failure of the Weimar Republic under Chancellor Wilhelm Cuno to keep paying the World War I reparations. The recently formed fringe National Socialist German Workers Party a.k.a. Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler attempts a coup against the Bavarian and German governments in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch, which fails, resulting in Hitler being briefly imprisoned for one year in prison where he writes Mein Kampf.
  • The United Kingdom general strike 1926.
  • Turkish War of Independence 1919–23.
  • Polish–Soviet War 1920–21.
  • The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Soviet Union is created in 1922.
  • Russian famine of 1921–22 claimed up to five million victims.
  • Major armed conflict in Ireland including Irish War of Independence 1919–1921 resulting in Ireland becoming an independent country in 1922 followed by the Irish Civil War 1922–23.


                                     

2.7. Politics and wars Asia

  • In the Kingdom of Afghanistan, Amanullah Khans reforms cause conflict with conservative factions, resulting in the Afghan Civil War.
  • The Chinese Civil War begins 1927–37.
  • The Qajar dynasty ended under Ahmad Shah Qajar as Reza Shah Pahlavi founds the Pahlavi Dynasty, which later became the last monarchy of Iran.
                                     

2.8. Politics and wars Africa

  • Pan-Africanist supporters of Marcus Garveys Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League UNIA-ACL are repressed by colonial powers in Africa. Garveys UNIA-ACL supported the creation of a state led by black people in Africa including African Americans.
                                     

3. Economics

  • Economic boom ended by "Black Tuesday" October 29, 1929; the stock market crashes, leading to the Great Depression. The market actually began to drop on Thursday October 24, 1929, and the fall continued until the huge crash on Tuesday October 29, 1929.
  • The New Economic Policy is created by the Bolsheviks in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, to be replaced by the first five-year plan in 1928.
  • The Dawes Plan, which lasted from 1924 to 1928.
  • Average annual inflation for the decade was virtually zero but individual years ranged from a high of 3.47% in 1925 to a deflationary -11% in 1921.
                                     

4. Disasters

Natural

  • The Great Kantō earthquake struck the main Japanese island of Honshū on the 1st of September, 1923. The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.9 on the moment magnitude scale.


                                     

5. Assassinations and attempts

Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, and assassination attempts include:

  • Francisco "Pancho" Villa, a Mexican Revolutionary general is assassinated by a group of seven assassins on July 20, 1923.
  • Walther Rathenau, Foreign Minister of Germany is assassinated by Ernst Werner Techow, Erwin Kern, and Hermann Willibald Fischer, all members of Organisation Consul on June 24, 1922.
                                     

6.1. Science and technology Technology

  • Clarence Birdseye invents a process for frozen food in 1925.
  • Robert Goddard makes the first flight of a liquid-fueled rocket in 1926.
  • John Logie Baird invents the first working mechanical television system 1925. In 1928, he invents and demonstrates the first color television.
  • Warner Brothers produces the first movie with a soundtrack Don Juan in 1926, followed by the first Part-Talkie The Jazz Singer in 1927, the first All-Talking movie Lights of New York in 1928 and the first All-Color All-Talking movie On with the Show, 1929. Silent films start giving way to sound films. By 1936, the transition phase arguably ends, with Modern Times being the last notable silent film.
  • The first selective Jukeboxes being introduced in 1927 by the Automated Musical Instrument Company.
  • The first electric razor is patented in 1928 by the American manufacturer Col. Jacob Schick.
  • Harold Stephen Black revolutionizes the field of applied electronics by inventing the negative feedback amplifier in 1927.
  • Karl Ferdinand Braun invents the modern electronic cathode ray tube in 1897. The CRT became a commercial product in 1922.
  • Record companies such as Victor, Brunswick and Columbia introduce an electrical recording process on their phonograph records in 1925 that had been developed by Western Electric, resulting in a more lifelike sound.


                                     

6.2. Science and technology Science

  • Howard Carter opens the innermost shrine of King Tutankhamuns tomb near Luxor, Egypt, 1922
  • In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin
  • Charles Lindbergh becomes the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean May 20–21, 1927, nonstop from New York to Paris.
                                     

7. Popular culture

Architecture

  • Walter Gropius builds the Bauhaus in Dessau
  • Le Corbusier published the book Toward an Architecture serving as the manifesto for a generation of architects.

1923

  • October: The New York Yankees win the 1923 World Series, the first title for the team.
  • May 26: the 24 hours of Le Mans conducts their first sports car race

1925

  • Germany and Belgium in first handball international tournament.
  • May 28: French Open invites non-French tennis athletes for the first time

1926

  • September 23: Gene Tunney wins Jack Dempseys world heavyweight boxing title.
  • August 6: Gertrude Ederle swims English Channel and is first woman to do so.

1929

  • The English team led by Wally Hammond defeats Australia in The Ashes series Test Cricket
                                     

7.1. Popular culture Film

  • First feature-length motion picture with a soundtrack Don Juan is released in 1926. First part-talkie The Jazz Singer released in 1927, first all-talking feature Lights of New York released in 1928 and first all-color all-talking feature On with the Show released in 1929.
  • Oscar winners: Wings 1927–1928, The Broadway Melody 1928–1929, All Quiet on the Western Front 1929–1930
  • The first animated short film by Walt Disney is released in 1928, featuring Mickey Mouse. Steamboat Willie was the first sound cartoon to attract widespread notice and popularity.
                                     

7.2. Popular culture Fashion

The 1920s is the decade in which fashion entered the modern era. It was the decade in which women first abandoned the more restricting fashions of past years and began to wear more comfortable clothes such as short skirts or trousers. Men also abandoned highly formal daily attire and even began to wear athletic clothing for the first time. The suits men wear today are still based, for the most part, on those worn in the late 1920s. The 1920s are characterized by two distinct periods of fashion. In the early part of the decade, change was slow, as many were reluctant to adopt new styles. From 1925, the public passionately embraced the styles associated with the Roaring Twenties. These styles continue to characterize fashion until the worldwide depression worsened in 1931.

                                     

7.3. Popular culture Music

  • "The Jazz Age" - jazz and jazz-influenced dance music became widely popular throughout the decade.
  • George Gershwin wrote Rhapsody in Blue and An American in Paris.
  • Eddie Lang and Joe Venuti were the first musicians to incorporate the guitar and violin into jazz.
                                     

7.4. Popular culture Radio

  • On August 27, 1920, regular wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in Argentina for the first time, by a Buenos Aires group including Enrique Telemaco Susini. The station is soon called Radio Argentina. See Radio in Argentina.
  • Both stations broadcast the election results between Harding and Cox in early November. The first station to receive a commercial license is WBZ, then in Springfield MA, in mid-September 1921. While there are only a few radio stations in 1920–21, by 1922 the radio craze is sweeping the country.
  • 1922: The BBC begins radio broadcasting in the United Kingdom as the British BroadcastingCompany, a consortium between radio manufacturers and newspapers. It became a public broadcaster in 1926.
  • First commercial radio stations in the U.S., 8MK WWJ in Detroit and KDKA 1020 AM in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, go on the air on August 27, 1920.
                                     

7.5. Popular culture Arts

  • Art Deco becomes fashionable.
  • Albert Gleizes paints Woman with Black Glove, 1920
  • The Group of Seven artists.
  • Rene Magritte paints The Treachery of Images.
  • Marcel Duchamp completes The Bride Stripped Bare By Her Bachelors, Even The Large Glass.
  • Beginning of surrealist movement.
  • Pablo Picasso paints Three Musicians in 1921.
  • The first science fiction comic strip, Buck Rogers, begins January 7, 1929. The first Tarzan comic strip begins on the same date.
  • The Museum of Modern Art opens in Manhattan, November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
                                     

7.6. Popular culture Literature

  • Virginia Woolf publishes Jacobs Room, Mrs. Dalloway, To the Lighthouse, A Room of Ones Own and Orlando
  • Kahlil Gibran publishes The Prophet
  • Robert Lee Frost publishes New Hampshire 1923 and West-Running Brook in 1928
  • T. S. Eliot publishes The Waste Land
  • Thornton Wilder publishes The Bridge of San Luis Rey
  • Harold Gray begins to write and draw the comic strip Little Orphan Annie August 5, 1924 and continues to do so until his death in 1968.
  • Wallace Stevens publishes his first book of poetry, Harmonium
  • Andre Breton publishes the Surrealist Manifesto
  • D.H. Lawrence publishes Women in Love, and Lady Chatterleys Lover
  • Sylvia Townsend Warner publishes Lolly Willowes in 1926
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald publishes some of the most enduring novels characterizing the Jazz Age. This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, and The Great Gatsby, as well as three short story collections, were all published in these years.
  • James Joyce publishes Ulysses
  • Franz Kafka publishes The Trial
  • Aldous Huxley publishes his inaugural novel Crome Yellow
  • Ernest Hemingway publishes The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms
  • Hugh MacDiarmid publishes A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle
  • Margaret Sanger publishes Woman and the New Race and The Pivot of Civilization
  • Alexey Tolstoy publishes Aelita
  • A. A. Milne publishes Winnie-the-Pooh
  • Eugene ONeill awarded Pulitzer Prizes for Beyond the Horizon in 1920, Anna Christie in 1922, and Strange Interlude in 1928.
  • George Bernard Shaw publishes Back to Methuselah
  • Margaret Mead publishes Coming of Age in Samoa in 1928
  • Sinclair Lewis publishes Main Street, Babbitt, Dodsworth, Arrowsmith, and Elmer Gantry
  • Erich Maria Remarque publishes All Quiet on the Western Front
  • Hermann Hesse publishes Siddhartha
                                     

7.7. Popular culture 1920

  • April: Babe Ruth began playing for the New York Yankees
  • January 24: Grand Prix de Paris switches its name to Prix de lArc de Triomphe horse race
  • August 17: Ray Chapman from the Cleveland Indians is killed by Carl Mays pitch baseball
  • February 13: Negro National League created baseball
  • April – September: Summer Olympics held in Antwerp.
  • August 20: National Football League founded
  • Kenesaw Mountain Landis is named the first Commissioner of Baseball.
                                     

7.8. Popular culture 1923

  • October: The New York Yankees win the 1923 World Series, the first title for the team.
  • May 26: the 24 hours of Le Mans conducts their first sports car race
                                     

7.9. Popular culture 1924

  • January – February: First Winter Olympic Games takes place in Chamonix France.
  • May – July: Summer Olympics held in Paris France.
  • July 10–13: Paavo Nurmi wins five gold medals in Summer Olympics track and field
                                     

7.10. Popular culture 1925

  • Germany and Belgium in first handball international tournament.
  • May 28: French Open invites non-French tennis athletes for the first time


                                     

7.11. Popular culture 1926

  • September 23: Gene Tunney wins Jack Dempseys world heavyweight boxing title.
  • August 6: Gertrude Ederle swims English Channel and is first woman to do so.
                                     

7.12. Popular culture 1927

  • May 23: Warwickshire end Yorkshires 71-match unbeaten sequence in the County Championship – the longest unbeaten sequence in that competition.
  • June 3: First Ryder Cup golf tournaments are held in Massachusetts
                                     

7.13. Popular culture 1928

  • February: Winter Olympics held in St. Moritz Switzerland.
  • William Ralph "Dixie" Dean wins the Football League, scores 60 goals in 39 matches for Everton F.C. English Football
  • May – August: Womens Olympics takes place for first time, in 1928 Summer Olympics held in Amsterdam.
                                     

7.14. Popular culture 1929

  • The English team led by Wally Hammond defeats Australia in The Ashes series Test Cricket
                                     

7.15. Popular culture Miscellaneous trends

  • Fads such as marathon dancing, mah-jong, crossword puzzles and pole-sitting are popular.
  • Youth culture of The Lost Generation ; flappers, the Charleston, and the bob cut haircut.
  • Twiglets are invented in December 1929 by Frenchman Rondalin Zwadoodie, and sold by Peek Freans.
  • The Harlem Renaissance centered in a thriving African American community of Harlem, New York City.
  • The height of the clip joint.
  • Since the 1920s scholars have methodically dug into the layers of history that lie buried at thousands of sites across China.
  • The tomb of Tutankhamun is discovered intact by Howard Carter 1922. This begins a second revival of Egyptomania.
                                     

8. People

Science

  • Alexander Fleming
  • Howard Carter
  • Albert Einstein
  • Niels Bohr
  • Garrett Morgan
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Edwin Powell Hubble
  • Georges Lemaitre
  • Frederick Banting
  • Werner Heisenberg

Literature

  • Sinclair Lewis
  • James Weldon Johnson
  • Erich Kastner
  • Nancy Cunard
  • Ernest Hemingway
  • T. S. Eliot
  • Alain Locke
  • Zora Neale Hurston
  • Langston Hughes
  • Zelda Fitzgerald
  • Thomas Mann
  • Claude McKay
  • William Faulkner
  • William Butler Yeats
  • Countee Cullen
  • Carl Sandburg
  • Bertolt Brecht
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald

Architects

  • Marcel Breuer
  • Le Corbusier
  • Walter Gropius
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe