ⓘ 1791

                                     

ⓘ 1791

1791 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1791st year of the Common Era and Anno Domini designations, the 791st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1791, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

                                     

1.1. Events January–March

  • February 21 – The United States opens diplomatic relations with Portugal.
  • January 12 – Holy Roman troops reenter Liege, heralding the end of the Liege Revolution, and the restoration of its Prince-Bishops.
  • March 2 – French Revolution
  • January 25 – The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act 1791, splitting the old province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada.
  • The abolition of guilds is enacted.
  • February 8 – The Bank of the United States, based in Philadelphia, is incorporated by the federal government with a 20-year charter and started with $10.000.000 capital.
  • January 2 – Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.
  • A mechanical semaphore line for rapid long-distance communication is demonstrated by Claude Chappe in Paris.
  • March – French Revolution: In France, the National Constituent Assembly accepts the recommendation of its Commission of Weights and Measures, that the nation should adopt the metric system.
  • March 13 – Thomas Paines chief work Rights of Man first part is published in London.
  • March 4 – Vermont is admitted, as the 14th U.S. state.
                                     

1.2. Events April–June

  • April 21 – The first of forty boundary stones, delineating the borders of the new District of Columbia in the United States, is laid at Jones Point Light, in Alexandria, Virginia.
  • June 21 – The Ordnance Survey is founded in Great Britain.
  • May 3 – The Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth proclaims the Constitution of May 3, 1791, the first modern codified constitution in Europe.
  • June 20 – French Revolution – Flight to Varennes: The French Royal Family is captured when they try to flee in disguise.
                                     

1.3. Events July–September

  • July 14–17 – Priestley Riots against Dissenters in Birmingham, England.
  • August 26 – John Fitch is granted a patent for the steamboat in the United States.
  • August 27
  • August 21 – Haitian Revolution: A slave rebellion breaks out in the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
  • August 7 – George Hammond is appointed as Great Britains first minister to the United States.
  • July 11 – The ashes of Voltaire are transferred to the Pantheon in Paris.
  • August 4 – The Treaty of Sistova is signed, ending the Ottoman–Habsburg wars.
  • July 8 – Austrian composer Joseph Haydn, on a visit to England, is awarded an honorary doctorate of music at the University of Oxford.
  • August 6 – The Brandenburg Gate in Berlin Prussia is finished.
  • July 17 – French Revolution: The Champ de Mars massacre occurs in Paris.
  • Third Anglo-Mysore War: Battle of Tellicherry: Off the south-west coast of India, a British Royal Navy patrol forces a French convoy bound for Mysore to surrender.
  • Declaration of Pillnitz: A proclamation by Frederick William II of Prussia and the Habsburg Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, affirms their wish to "put the King of France in a state to strengthen the bases of monarchic government."
  • September 12 – The first serious secondary education school open to girls in Denmark, the Dotreskolen af 1791, is founded in Copenhagen.
  • September 9 – The capital of the United States, Washington, D.C., is named after the incumbent 1st President George Washington.
  • September 28 – French Revolution: The law on Jewish emancipation is promulgated in France, the first such legislation in modern Europe.
  • September 30 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts singspiel opera The Magic Flute Die Zauberflote premieres at the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden in Vienna.
  • September 6 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts opera seria, La clemenza di Tito, premieres at the Estates Theatre in Prague to mark the coronation of Leopold II as King of Bohemia.
  • September 14 – French Revolution: The Papal States lose Avignon to Revolutionary France.
  • September 13 – French Revolution: Louis XVI of France accepts the final version of the completed constitution.
  • September 25 – Mission Santa Cruz is founded by Basque Franciscan Father Fermin Lasuen, becoming the 12th mission in the California mission chain.
  • September 5 – An ordinance is written barring the game of baseball within 80 yards of the Meeting House in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, the first known reference to the game of baseball in North America.


                                     

1.4. Events October–December

  • December 5 – Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart dies aged 35 at his home in Vienna, perhaps of acute rheumatic fever, and is buried two days later.
  • October 28 – French Revolution: The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen is published in France.
  • December 23 – Pale of Settlement established by ukase of Catherine the Great, specifying those areas of the Russian Empire in which Jews are permitted permanent residency.
  • October 1 – French Revolution: The Legislative Assembly France convenes.
  • November 4 – St. Clairs Defeat, the worst loss suffered by the United States Army in fighting against American Indians, takes place in what is now Mercer County, Ohio. Miami fighters led by Chief Mihsihkinaahkwa Little Turtle and by Shawnee warriors commanded by War Chief Weyapiersenwah Blue Jacket rout the forces of General Arthur St. Clair and kill 630 U.S. soldiers, along with hundreds of civilians.
  • December 15 – Ratification by the states of the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution is completed, creating the United States Bill of Rights. Two additional amendments remain pending, and one of these is finally ratified in 1992, becoming the Twenty-seventh Amendment.
  • October 9 – Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad is founded by Father Fermin Lasuen, becoming the 13th mission in the California mission chain.
  • December 4 – The first issue of The Observer, the worlds first Sunday newspaper, is published in London.
                                     

1.5. Events Date unknown

  • The School for the Indigent Blind, the oldest continuously operating specialist school of its kind in the world, is founded in Liverpool, England, by blind ex-merchant seaman, writer and abolitionist Edward Rushton.
  • The first American ship reaches Japan.
  • The Dar Hassan Pacha palace in the Casbah of Algiers is completed.
                                     

2. Births

  • Carl Czerny, Austrian composer d. 1857
  • John Mercer, English chemist, industrialist d. 1866
  • February 12 – Peter Cooper, American industrialist, inventor and philanthropist d. 1883
  • January 15 – Franz Grillparzer, Austrian writer d. 1872
  • January 28 – Ferdinand Herold, French composer d. 1833
  • February 21
  • September 22 – Michael Faraday, British scientist d. 1867
  • September 23
  • September 21 – Istvan Szechenyi, Hungarian politician, writer d. 1860
  • Johann Franz Encke, German astronomer d. 1865
  • March 20 – Marie Ellenrieder, German painter d. 1863
  • April 27 – Samuel Morse, American inventor d. 1872
  • July 26 – Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart, Austrian composer, pianist d. 1844
  • September 5 – Giacomo Meyerbeer, German composer d. 1864
  • April 23 – James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States d. 1868
  • March 31 – Franciszek Mirecki, Polish composer, conductor and teacher d. 1862
  • June 30 – Felix Savart, French physicist d. 1841
  • June 1 – John Nelson, American lawyer d. 1860
  • Theodor Korner, German author, soldier d. 1813
  • April 3 – Anne Lister, landowner, diarist, mountaineer and traveller, "the first modern lesbian" d. 1840
  • approximate date – Enriqueta Favez, Swiss-born physician, surgeon d. 1856
  • December 7 – Ferenc Novak, Hungarian Slovene song collector and priest d. 1836
  • November 11 – Josef Munzinger, member of the Swiss Federal Council d. 1855
  • September 26 – Theodore Gericault, French painter d. 1824
  • December 26 – Charles Babbage, British mathematician, inventor d. 1871
  • October 29 – John Elliotson, British physician d. 1868


                                     

3. Deaths

  • July 25 – Isaac Low, American delegate to the Continental Congress b. 1735
  • June 10 – Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte, French admiral b. 1720
  • September 25 – William Bradford, American printer b. 1719
  • October 12
  • Peter Oliver, Massachusetts colonial judge b. 1713
  • March 10 – William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford 1722–1791, England b. 1722
  • October 7 – Mary Frances of the Five Wounds, Italian Franciscan saint b. 1715
  • May 9 – Francis Hopkinson, signer of the United States Declaration of Independence b. 1737
  • July 9 – Jacques-Nicolas Tardieu, French engraver b. 1716
  • June 5 – Frederick Haldimand, Swiss-born British colonial governor b. 1718
  • January 11 – William Williams Pantycelyn, Welsh hymnist b. 1717
  • July 17 – Martin Dobrizhoffer, Austrian Jesuit missionary b. 1717
  • June 30 – Jean-Baptiste Descamps, Flemish painter and art historian b. 1714
  • August 22 – Johann David Michaelis, German biblical scholar and teacher b. 1717
  • April 19 – Richard Price, Welsh philosopher b. 1723
  • April 24 – Benjamin Harrison V, signer of the United States Declaration of Independence b. 1726
  • June 17 – Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon, English Methodist leader b. 1707
  • January 23 – Johann Phillip Fabricius, German missionary b. 1711
  • March 31 – Ralph Verney, 2nd Earl Verney of Ireland b. 1714
  • Anna Louisa Karsch, German poet b. 1722
  • March 14 – Johann Salomo Semler, German historian, Bible commentator b. 1725
  • April 2 – Honore Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, French revolutionary leader b. 1749
  • March 2 – John Wesley, English founder of Methodism b. 1703
  • October 16 – Grigory Potemkin, Russian military leader, statesman, nobleman and favourite of Catherine the Great b. 1739
  • Catharina Freymann, Norwegian pietist leader b. 1708
  • December 12
  • November 4 – Richard Butler, American soldier b. 1743
  • Etteilla, French occult cartomancer b. 1738
  • December 5 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer b. 1756
  • November 16 – Edward Penny, British painter b. 1714
  • date unknown – Maria Petraccini, Italian anatomist, physician b. 1759
  • December 27 – John Monro, British physician of Bethlem Hospital b. 1716
  • December 13 – Mathieu Tillet, French botanist b. 1714
  • December 19 – Jean-François de Neufforge, Flemish architect and engraver b. 1714