ⓘ X


ⓘ X

X or x is the 24th and third-to-last letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is ex, plural exes.


1. History

In Ancient Greek, Χ and Ψ were among several variants of the same letter, used originally for /kʰ/ and later, in western areas such as Arcadia, as a simplification of the digraph ΧΣ for /ks/. In the end, more conservative eastern forms became the standard of Classical Greek, and thus Χ Chi stood for /kʰ/ later /x/ ; palatalized to in Modern Greek before front vowels. However, the Etruscans had taken over Χ from western Greek, and it therefore stands for /ks/ in Etruscan and Latin.

The letter Χ ~ Ψ for /kʰ/ was a Greek addition to the alphabet, placed after the Semitic letters along with phi Φ for /pʰ/.


2.1. Use in writing systems English

In English orthography, ⟨x⟩ is typically pronounced as the voiceless consonant cluster when it follows the stressed vowel e.g. ox, and the voiced consonant when it precedes the stressed vowel e.g. exam. It is also pronounced when it precedes a silent ⟨h⟩ and a stressed vowel e.g. exhaust. Before ⟨i⟩ or ⟨u⟩, it can be pronounced or e.g. sexual and luxury; these result from earlier and. It also makes the sound in words ending in -xion typically used only in British-based spellings of the language; American spellings tend to use -ction. When ⟨x⟩ ends a word, it is always e.g. fax, except in loan words such as faux see French, below.

There are very few English words that start with ⟨x⟩ the fewest of any letter. When ⟨x⟩ does start a word, it is usually pronounced ; in rare recent loanwords or foreign proper names, it can also be pronounced e.g. the obsolete Vietnamese monetary unit xu or e.g. Chinese names starting with Xi like Xiaomi or Xinjiang. Many of the words that start with ⟨x⟩ are of Greek origin, or standardized trademarks Xerox or acronyms XC. In abbreviations, it can represent "trans-" e.g. XMIT for transmit, XFER for transfer, "cross-" e.g. X-ing for crossing, XREF for cross-reference, "Christ-" as shorthand for the labarum e.g. Xmas for Christmas, Xian for Christian, the "crys-" in crystal XTAL, or various words starting with "ex-" e.g. XL for extra large, XOR for exclusive-or.

X is the third least frequently used letter in English after ⟨q⟩ and ⟨z⟩, with a frequency of about 0.15% in words.


3. Other uses

In mathematics, x is commonly used as the name for an independent variable or unknown value. The modern tradition of using x to represent an unknown was introduced by Rene Descartes in La Geometrie 1637. As a result of its use in algebra, X is often used to represent unknowns in other circumstances.

On some identification documents, the letter X represents a non-binary gender, where F means female and M means male.

In the Cartesian coordinate system, x is used to refer to the horizontal axis.

It may also be used as a typographic approximation for the multiplication sign. In mathematical typesetting, x meaning an algebraic variable is normally in italic type x {\displaystyle x\!}, partly to avoid confusion with the multiplication symbol. In fonts containing both x the letter and × the multiplication sign, the two glyphs are dissimilar.

It can be used as an abbreviation for between in the context of historical dating; e.g., 1483 x 1485.

Maps and other images sometimes use an X to label a specific location, leading to the expression "X marks the spot".

The Roman numeral Ⅹ represents the number 10.

In art or fashion, the use of X indicates a collaboration by two or more artists, e.g. Aaron Koblin x Takashi Kawashima. This application, which originated in Japan, now extends to other kinds of collaboration outside the art world. This usage mimics the use of a similar mark in denoting botanical hybrids, for which scientifically the multiplication sign × is used, but informally a lowercase "x" is also used.


4.1. Related characters Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet

  • Teuthonista phonetic transcription-specific symbols related to X
  • X with diacritics: ẍ x ᶍ
  • IPA-specific symbols related to X: χ
  • ₓ: Subscript small x is used in Indo-European studies
  • ˣ: Modifier letter small x is used for phonetic transcription

4.2. Related characters Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

  • ᚷ: Runic letter Gyfu, which may derive from old Italic X
  • Х х: Cyrillic letter Kha
  • : Gothic letter enguz, which derives from Greek Chi
  • Ⲭ ⲭ: Coptic letter Khe, which derives from Greek Chi
  • Χ χ: Greek letter Chi, from which the following derive
  • : Old Italic X, which derives from Greek Chi, and is the ancestor of modern Latin X
  • Ξ ξ: Greek letter Xi, which was used in place of Chi in the Eastern and the modern Greek alphabets

5. Computing

Computing codes

1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

In the C programming language, "x" preceded by zero as in 0x or 0X is used to denote hexadecimal literal values.

Operating systems

X is commonly used as a prefix term in nouns related to the X Window System and Unix

  • Besides the 26 letters of the
  • X is the Latin letter X with a circumflex. The letter is used in the Haida language and Aleut languages of Alaska.
  • represented in plain text without using any form of markup like HTML or Te X The World Wide Web Consortium and the Unicode Consortium have made recommendations
  • X uppercase or x lowercase is a letter of the Latin alphabet, taken from an X with a dot below the letter. It is not easy to show up in computers
  • represents this sound is χ the Greek chi. The sound is represented by x ex with underdot in Americanist phonetic notation. For a voiceless pre - uvular
  • simple character replacements for all other languages. Te X and its derivatives, most notably LaTe X also allows double dots to be placed over letters. The
  • another key. Each notation below means press and hold Ctrl while pressing the X key: Different application programs, user interfaces, and operating systems
  • A a B b Ç ç Ḉ ḉ C c Ḑ ḑ Ȩ ȩ Ȩ ȩ Ḝ ḝ Ə ə Ɛ ɛ Ģ ģ Ḩ ḩ I i Ɨ ɨ Ķ ķ Ļ ļ M m Ņ ņ O o Ɔ ɔ Q q Ŗ ŗ S s ſ S T t U u X x Z z
  • X - Men are a team of fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by artist co - writer Jack Kirby and writer