ⓘ Innate immune system

                                     

ⓘ Innate immune system

The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates. The innate immune system is an older evolutionary defense strategy, relatively speaking, and it is the dominant immune system response found in plants, fungi, insects, and primitive multicellular organisms.

The main functions of the innate immune system of vertebrates include:

  • Recruiting immune cells to sites of infection through the production of chemical factors, including specialized chemical mediators called cytokines.
  • Activation of the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation.
  • Identification and removal of foreign substances present in organs, tissues, blood and lymph, by specialized white blood cells.
  • Activation of the complement cascade to identify bacteria, activate cells, and promote clearance of antibody complexes or dead cells.
  • Acting as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents, via physical measures like skin or tree bark and chemical measures like clotting factors in blood or sap from a tree, which are released following a contusion or other injury that breaks through the first-line physical barrier.
                                     
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