ⓘ Drive (2011 film)

                                     

ⓘ Drive (2011 film)

Drive is a 2011 American action drama film directed by Danish filmmaker Nicolas Winding Refn. The screenplay, written by Hossein Amini, is based on James Sallis 2005 novel Drive. The film stars Ryan Gosling as an unnamed Hollywood stunt driver who moonlights as a getaway driver. He quickly grows fond of his neighbor, Irene, and her young son, Benicio. When her debt-ridden husband, Standard, is released from prison, the two men take part in what turns out to be a botched million-dollar heist that endangers the lives of everyone involved. The film co-stars Bryan Cranston, Christina Hendricks, Ron Perlman, and Albert Brooks.

Producers Marc Platt and Adam Siegel optioned the source novel after Siegel read a review from Publishers Weekly. Adapting the book proved to be challenging for Amini, as it had a nonlinear narrative. Gosling, one of Platts top casting choices, eventually signed on for the lead, as he wanted to star in an action-oriented project. Gosling played a pivotal role in the films production, which included hiring Refn as director and Beth Mickle as production designer. Newton Thomas Sigel oversaw the principal photography, which started on September 25, 2010, was shot on location in various parts of Los Angeles, and ended on November 12.

Before its September 2011 release, Drive had been shown at a number of film festivals, including the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, where it received a standing ovation. Refn won the festivals Best Director Award. The film received widespread praise for its direction, performances, visuals, action sequences, and musical score; however, some critics were appalled by its graphic violence and found that potentially detrimental to the films box office success. Several critics listed Drive as one of the best films of 2011, including the National Board of Review. Its honors include a nomination for Best Sound Editing at the 84th Academy Awards.

                                     

1. Plot

An unnamed Driver works as a mechanic, a stunt double, a stunt driver, and a criminal-for-hire getaway car driver in Los Angeles, California. His jobs are all managed by auto shop owner Shannon, who persuades Jewish mobsters Bernie Rose and Nino to purchase a car for the Driver to race. The Driver meets his new neighbor, Irene, and grows close to her and her young son, Benicio. Their budding relationship is interrupted when Irenes husband, Standard Gabriel, is released from prison.

Standard owes protection money from his time in prison and is beaten up by Albanian gangster Cook, who demands that Standard rob a pawnshop for $40.000 to pay off the debt. Cook gives Benicio a bullet as a symbol that he and his mother are in danger. The Driver, concerned for the safety of Irene and Benicio, offers to act as the getaway driver for the pawnshop robbery.

The job goes awry when the pawnshop owner shoots and kills Standard while the Driver is waiting for him with Cooks accomplice, Blanche. Pursued by a mysterious adversary, the Driver and Blanche escape after an intense car chase. The Driver hides with Blanche in a motel where he learns from a news report that the pawnshop owner claims Standard performed the robbery by himself and no money had been stolen. The Driver slaps and threatens to hurt Blanche when she lies about being oblivious to the second car. She admits that the bag contains a million dollars and that she and Cook planned to re-steal the money for themselves using the car that chased them. Two of Cooks men ambush them in their room and kill Blanche before the Driver kills them.

At the auto shop, Shannon offers to hide the money, but the Driver refuses. He hunts down Cook in a strip club, smashes his fingers with a hammer, threatens to kill him, and force-feeds him the bullet that was given to Benicio. Cook reveals that Nino was behind the robbery. The Driver decides to return the money, but Nino dismisses the offer and instead sends a hitman to the Drivers apartment building. The Driver invites Irene to run away with him and the money but she slaps him in anger over her husbands death and the Drivers involvement. Entering the elevator with her, the Driver encounters the hitman. He kisses Irene and brutally stomps the hitman to death, leaving her stunned and horrified. Surprised that Nino knows his address, the Driver confronts Shannon, who reveals that he also unwittingly mentioned Irene. The Driver advises Shannon to flee for his safety.

At his pizzeria, Nino reveals to Bernie that a low-level Philadelphia wise guy from the "East Coast mob" stashed the money at the pawnshop. Since anyone tied to the robbery could lead the East Coast Italian Mafia to them, they need to kill everyone involved. Bernie warns Nino that nobody steals from the Italian Mob. Nino is angry because the Italian Mob has marginalized and insulted him because of his Jewish heritage. He convinces Bernie to follow his plan. Bernie murders Cook, as he is the sole witness to their agreement. After Shannon refuses to divulge the whereabouts of the Driver, Bernie kills him at the auto shop with a straight razor.

The Driver, disguising himself with a rubber stuntmans mask, follows Nino from the pizzeria to the Pacific Coast Highway and rams his car onto a beach; he chases Nino from the wreck to the ocean and drowns him. He makes a phone call to Irene to tell her he is leaving and that meeting her and Benicio was the best thing that ever happened to him. The Driver meets Bernie, who promises that Irene will be safe in exchange for the money. He gives Bernie the money, but Bernie stabs him in the stomach. The Driver pulls out his own knife and stabs Bernie in the throat, killing him. He abandons the money next to Bernies body and leaves. Irene knocks on the Drivers apartment door to no avail. The wounded Driver drives off into the night.

                                     

2. Cast

  • Kaden Leos as Benicio
  • Oscar Isaac as Standard Gabriel
  • James Biberi as Cook
  • Carey Mulligan as Irene
  • Christina Hendricks as Blanche
  • Bryan Cranston as Shannon
  • Albert Brooks as Bernie Rose
  • Ryan Gosling as The Driver
  • Ron Perlman as Nino
                                     

3.1. Production Development

The novel Drive by James Sallis was published in 2005. Producers Marc Platt and Adam Siegel of Marc Platt Productions optioned the novel after Siegel read a review in Publishers Weekly. The driver intrigued Siegel because he was "the kind of character you rarely see anymore – he was a man with a purpose; he was very good at one thing and made no apologies for it". The character interested Platt, because he reminded him of movie heroes he looked up to as a child, characters typically portrayed by Steve McQueen or Clint Eastwood.

Hossein Amini adapted the novel for the screen. He felt it was a rare book to receive from a studio because it was short, gloomy, and like a poem. Since the novel does not present a linear story, but has many flashbacks and jumps around in time, Amini found the adaptation challenging. He felt the non-linear structure made it "a very tricky structure" for a feature film.

A film adaptation of Drive was first announced in early 2008, with Neil Marshall set to direct what was being described as "an L.A set action mystery", planned as a starring vehicle for Hugh Jackman. Universal Studios, which had tried to make a film version for some time, was also on board. By February 2010, Marshall and Jackman were no longer attached to the project.

Producer Marc E. Platt contacted actor Ryan Gosling about Drive early on. Platt explained: "I have this list that Ive created of very talented individuals whose work inspire me – writers, directors, actors whom I have to work with before I go onto another career or do something else with my life." Near the top of Platts list was Gosling, who, despite having starred in several films of diverse genres, had never starred in anything like Drive. He had always been interested in doing an action-oriented project. Gosling said that he had been put off by the many current action genre films that focused more on stunts instead of characters. But he responded to Platt about two days later, as he was strongly attracted to the plot and the leading role of the unnamed driver. He thought the story had a "very strong character" at its core, and a "powerful" romance.

In an interview with Rotten Tomatoes, Gosling was asked what had attracted him to the film, and whether he had read the earlier script when Jackman and director Neil Marshall were attached to it. He said:

I think that might be the original one I read. I read a few drafts. I read one as well where he wasnt a stunt driver at all, which was a newer draft – maybe thats the one Hugh Jackman had; Im not sure exactly. Basically when I read it, in trying to figure out who would do something like this, the only way to make sense of this is that this is a guy thats seen too many movies, and hes started to confuse his life for a film. Hes lost in the mythology of Hollywood and hes become an amalgamation of all the characters that he admires.

When Gosling signed on for the leading role, he was allowed to choose the director, a first in his career. The actor chose the Danish filmmaker Nicolas Winding Refn, whose work he admired. He said, "It had to be personally".

While working on the film, Refn had some cast and production members move in temporarily with him, his wife and two daughters in their home in Los Angeles. This included Carey Mulligan and Hossein Amini, the screenwriter. This enabled them to be immersed in the film. Refn and Amini made significant changes to the original script during this time.

Bryan Cranston plays the role of Shannon. Refn knew he wanted to cast Cranston, as he was a fan of his work in the TV series Breaking Bad. Knowing Cranston had other opportunities, Refn asked the actor how he would like to develop the role. After not hearing back, Refn called him; Cranston was just then writing the pros and cons of doing Drive for himself. Moved by Refns interest, Cranston accepted the part. Christina Hendricks plays the small role of Blanche. "Trying to work in a more reality arena for a character like that," Refn originally auditioned porn stars for Blanche. He was unable to find anyone with the necessary acting talent. After meeting with Hendricks, he decided to cast her as he felt her persona would click with the character.

Albert Brooks plays the foul-mouthed, morose Bernie Rose. When Refn suggested him, Gosling agreed, but thought the actor might not want to play a character who is violent and sullen, or appear in a film that he did not work on himself. Brooks accepted the role to go against type, and because he loved that Bernie was not a cliche.

There are six people you could always get to play this kind of part, and I like that the director was thinking outside of the box. For me, it was an opportunity to act outside the box. I liked that this mobster had real style. Also, he doesnt get up in the morning thinking about killing people. Hes sad about it. Upset about it. Its a case of, Look what you made me do.

Nino, a key villain, is portrayed by Ron Perlman, one of the last actors to join the cast. Refn said, "The character of Nino was originally not particularly interesting, so I asked Ron why he wanted to be in my movie when hes done so many great films. When Perlman said, I always wanted to play a Jewish man who wants to be an Italian gangster, and I asked why, and he said, because thats what I am – a Jewish boy from New York, well, that automatically cemented it for me." Oscar Isaac portrays a Latino convict named Standard, who is married to Irene and is released from prison a week after Irene meets The Driver. Finding the role somewhat unappealing, he developed the archetypal character into something more.

He said of the role:

As soon as I sat down with Nicolas, he explained this universe and world of the story, so we made the character into someone interested in owning a restaurant, someone who made some wrong decisions in his life, ending up in a bad place. By making Standard more specific and more interesting, we found that it made the story that more compelling.



                                     

3.2. Production Filming and cinematography

The film was made on a production budget of about $15 million and shot in various parts of Los Angeles, beginning on September 25, 2010. Locations were picked by Refn while Gosling drove him around the city at night. At the directors request, Los Angeles was picked as the shooting location due to budget constraints. Refn moved into a plush Los Angeles home and insisted that the cast members and screenwriter Amini move in with him. They would work on the script and film all day, then watch films, edit, or drive at night. Refn asked that the editing suite be placed in his home as well. With a shooting script of 81 pages, Refn and Gosling continued to trim down dialogue during filming.

The opening chase scene, involving Goslings character, was filmed primarily by Refn within the cars interior. In an interview, he said he intended for this scene to emulate the feeling of a "diver in an ocean of sharks," and never left the vehicle during the car chase so that the audience can see whats happening from the characters point of view. Tight on money and time, he shot the scene in two days. With two different set-ups prepared in the car, the director found it difficult to have mobility with the camera, so he would switch the camera to two additional set-ups nearby. As downtown Los Angeles had been rejuvenated, Refn avoided certain areas to maintain the novels gloomy atmosphere. The scene was shot at low angles with minimal light.

The elevator sequence was shot without dialogue. Refn explained:

A scene like the elevator sequence in Drive, for instance, has no dialogue, just a series of stunning visuals and graphic imagery – thats a prime example of how the film conveys so many ideas and emotions through images rather than words.

Before shooting the head-smashing scene, Refn spoke to Gaspar Noe and asked him how he had done a similar scene in his film Irreversible 2002. Crossing the line from romance to violence, the scene begins with the Driver and Irene kissing tenderly. What they share is really a goodbye kiss. The Driver becomes a kind of "werewolf," violently stomping the hit mans head in. Irene sees the Driver in a new light.

Of this scene Refn said:

Every movie has to have a heart – a place where it defines itself – and in every movie Ive made theres always a scene that does that. On Drive, it was hard for me to wrap my head around it. I realized I needed to show in one situation that driver is the hopelessly romantic knight, but hes also completely psychotic and is willing to use any kind of violence to protect innocence. But that scene was never written. As I was going along, it just kind of popped up.

In March 2012, Interiors, an online journal concerned with the relationship between architecture and film, published an issue that discussed how space is used in this scene. The issue highlights Refns use of constricted space and his way of creating a balance between romance and violence.

Using the Arri Alexa camera, cinematographer Newton Thomas Sigel shot the film digitally. According to executive producer David Lancaster, the film has abundant, evocative, intense images of Los Angeles that are not often seen. "From the little seen back streets of downtown LA to the dry arid outposts on the peaks of the desert landscape surrounding it, Siegel has re-imagined an LA all the way down to the rocky cliffs by the sea."

Car scenes were filmed with a "biscuit rig," a camera car rig developed for the film Seabiscuit 2003. It allowed stunt driver Robert Nagle to steer the car, freeing Gosling to concentrate on acting. Consistent with Refns usual visual style, wide-angle lenses were used extensively by cinematographer Sigel, who avoided hand-held camera work. Preferring to keep the film more "grounded" and authentic, he also avoided the use of computer-generated imagery CGI. Budget restrictions were also a factor in this decision.

Although many stunt drivers are credited, Gosling did some stunts himself, after completing a stunt driving car crash course. During the production, Gosling re-built the 1973 Chevrolet Malibu used in the film, taking it apart and putting it back together. Filming concluded on November 12, 2010.

Beth Mickle was hired as the films production designer on Goslings recommendation; they had worked together on 2006s Half Nelson. Prior to filming, Mickle supervised a crew of 40, routinely working 16- to 18-hour days. This was her most expensive film to date, and Mickle felt freer since "there was another zero added to the budget," compared to that of Half Nelson. The crew built the Drivers apartment building, which included a hallway and elevator that linked his unit to Irenes. Mickle also built a strip club set and Bernie Roses apartment in an abandoned building. Turning a "run-of-the-mill" Los Angeles auto body shop into a grandiose dealership was one of the most challenging tasks. Painting the walls an electric blue color, she filled the showroom with vintage cars.

While Drive is set in the present day, it has a 1980s atmosphere, underlined by the vehicles, music, and clothes, and by the architecture. The parts of the city seen in the Valley and near downtown Los Angeles are cheap stucco and mirrored glass; the film excludes buildings constructed more recently. Drab background settings include the Southern California commercial strip. As the Los Angeles Times pointed out, whenever gleaming buildings are shown, it is because they are being seen from a distance. Refn shot those scenes from a helicopter at night in Bunker Hill, Los Angeles.

                                     

3.3. Production Music

Refn chose Johnny Jewel of Desire and the Chromatics to score the film. He wanted electronic music and to have it be abstract, on occasion, so viewers can see things from the Drivers perspective. As Refn was going through mixer Jewels catalog, he picked out "Under Your Spell" and "Tick of the Clock" because he thought of Drive being a fairy tale. During Drive s climax, "A Real Hero"s keynote melody, about becoming "a real human being, and a real hero", refrains because that is when the Driver displays both those characteristics. At first, Jewel worried that "Under Your Spell" might be too literal, but soon realized it is used in Drive "in the exact same way that I was feeling it when I wrote it. He definitely got the nuance of the song, and understood what it was supposed to mean, and he wanted to give that emotion to the viewer, that same feeling."

Thinking of music in terms of basic elements, Jewel would tell the director that for certain scenes, it should not have bass since, as an earth tone, it is usually used for a more emotional or ominous part. Jewel thought the music should be in the upper register and relaxing for the "dreamlike" scene. To help himself with the music composition process, and to conjure up melodies, the producer would highlight many phrases from the novel, then print those words in large font, and hung them on his walls or draw pictures during viewings of Drive.

Although Jewels music was used in the score, at the last minute the studio hired composer Cliff Martinez to imitate the style and feel of Jewels bands Chromatics and Glass Candy. Refn gave him a sampling of songs he liked and asked Martinez to emulate the sound, resulting in "a kind of retro, 80ish, synthesizer europop". Editor Mat Newman suggested Drive s opening credits song: "Nightcall" by French electronic musician Kavinsky. Most of its ethereal electronic-pop score was composed by Martinez. Refn was a particular fan of his ambient music on the Sex, Lies, and Videotape soundtrack. The score contains tracks with vintage keyboards and bluntly descriptive titles.

Jewel reworked his unused soundtrack for the film into Themes for an Imaginary Film, the debut album by his side-project Symmetry.

A re-scored soundtrack for the film was produced for the BBC by Zane Lowe for its television broadcast in October 2014. The soundtrack included original music from Chvrches, Banks, Bastille, Eric Prydz, SBTRKT, Bring Me the Horizon, The 1975 and Laura Mvula.

                                     

4. Release

Prior to beginning principal photography, Refn went to the 2010 Cannes Film Festival to sell the rights to Drive and released promotional posters for the film. In November 2010, FilmDistrict acquired North American distribution rights. The owners were so eager to get their hands on Drive, they started negotiating to buy it before seeing any footage, believing it could appeal to people who enjoy a genre movie, as well as the arthouse crowd. The film had a release date of September 16, 2011, in the United States.

The film premiered on May 20, in competition at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival. At its first showing the film received abundant praise and "some of the best responses of the festival," but Xan Brooks of The Guardian, who gave it a positive review, said it "cant win, wont win" Canness top prize. Brooks explained that "ts too self-consciously retro, too much a series of cool, blank surfaces as opposed to a rounded, textured drama," but said that it was his "guilty pleasure" of the 2011 competition, labeling it an enjoyable affair. He said,

Over the past 10 days weve witnessed great art and potent social commentary; the birth of the cosmos and the end of the world. Turns out what we really wanted all along was a scene in which a man gets his head stomped in a lift. They welcome it in like a long-lost relation.

The film was greeted with hoots and howls of joy from the media, with viewers cheering on some of the scenes featuring extreme violence. Drive received a 15-minute standing ovation from the crowd. The festival awarded Refn best director for Drive.

Drive was screened at the Los Angeles Film Festival LAFF on June 20 at its gala screenings program. It was among more than 200 feature films, short projects, and music videos, from more than 30 countries, to be shown during the festival. After Red Dog s release date was pushed up by several days, Drive replaced it as the Melbourne International Film Festivals closing night film. The film was also screened during FilmDistricts studio panel presentation at the San Diego Comic-Con function. A secret screening for Drive was held at Londons Empire Big Screen during the middle of August. In September, Drive screened as a special presentation during the 2011 Toronto International Film Festival, alongside another film starring Gosling, The Ides of March.



                                     

5.1. Reception Critical response

Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports an approval rating of 92% based on 260 reviews, and an average rating of 8.29/10. The sites critical consensus states, "With its hyper-stylized blend of violence, music, and striking imagery, Drive represents a fully realized vision of arthouse action." Metacritic, another review aggregator, gave it a score of 78 out of 100, based on 43 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".

It was one of the highest-ranked, and most-featured, films on critics year-end top 10 lists. It ranked as fourth-best film of the year, behind The Tree of Life, The Artist, and Melancholia on Metacritics tally of top 10 lists. Drive was picked as the best film of the year by: Peter Travers of Rolling Stone, Richard Roeper of the Chicago Sun-Times, James Rocchi of BoxOffice, Joshua Rothkopf of Time Out New York, Neil Miller of Film School Rejects, Mark Russell of The Oregonian, and a staff critic from Empire magazine.

The writers for the film magazine Empire listed Drive as their number one film of 2011. Peter Travers of Rolling Stone gave the film 4 out of 4 stars, declaring that Drive was "a brilliant piece of nasty business," and that "Refn is a virtuoso, blending tough and tender with such uncanny skill that he deservedly won the Best Director prize at Cannes." Travers also said, "Prepare to be blown away by Albert Brooks. Brooks performance, veined with dark humor and chilling menace watch him with a blade, deserves to have Oscar calling." The Wall Street Journal s Joe Morgenstern also praised Brookss performance, calling his villainous performance "sensational." James Rocchi of The Playlist gave the film an A letter grade, and wrote that Drive works as a great demonstration of how, when theres true talent behind the camera, entertainment and art are not enemies but allies." Rocchi placed Drive as his number one film of 2011.

Movieline s Stephanie Zacharek complimented the films action and wrote that it "defies all the current trends in mainstream action filmmaking. The driving sequences are shot and edited with a surgeons clarity and precision. Refn doesnt chop up the action to fool us into thinking its more exciting than it is." She also admired Refns skill in handling the films violence, and the understated romance between Gosling and Mulligan. Her score for the film is 9.5/10. Drive was Roger Eberts seventh best film of 2011. In praising the film, he wrote, "Here is a movie with respect for writing, acting, and craft. It has respect for knowledgeable moviegoers." Like Zacharek, Ebert admired the films action sequences, which were practically made and did not rely on CGI effects.

Anthony Lane wrote in The New Yorker that Drive s violence was far too graphic, and this ultimately was a detriment to the film. Referring to the violence, he said, "In grabbing our attention, he diverts it from what matters. The horror lingers and seeps; the feelings are sponged away." Michael Philips of the Chicago Tribune felt similarly, and said that although he enjoyed the film in the early sections, it became "one garishly sadistic set piece after another". Phillips thought the film relied too much on "stylistic preening" and did not have enough substance. In 2014, The Huffington Post included Drive on its list of 8 Movies From The Last 15 Years That Are Super Overrated, with Bill Bradley criticizing the low amount of dialogue by Gosling’s character and writing that" Refn spends all 100 minutes trying to convince you that he has a cool iPod playlist.” Complex criticized the film for whitewashing the character of Irene, who was a Latina in the source novel. Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film a score of C−; this was attributed to audiences feeling tricked, having expected more driving action based on the marketing.



                                     

5.2. Reception Style and inspiration

Andrew OHehir of Salon described Drive as a "classic Los Angeles heist-gone-wrong story," that "isnt trying to outdo Bullitt or get the next assignment in The Fast and the Furious franchise". OHehir also described homages to "Roger Cormans B-movie aesthetic and the glossy Hollywood spectacles of Michael Mann". Steven Zeitchik of the Los Angeles Times examined themes in the characters of "loyalty, loneliness and the dark impulses that rise up even when we try our hardest to suppress them". Reuters Nick Vinocur described a series of comic gore, resulting in "a bizarre concoction. reminiscent of David Lynchs Mulholland Drive. Quentin Tarantinos Pulp Fiction, and angst-laden love scenes that would not be out of place in a Scandinavian drama". Christopher Hawthorne, also from the Los Angeles Times, has compared it to the works of Walter Hill, John Carpenter, Nathanael West, J. G. Ballard, and Mike Davis. According to Refn, Drive is dedicated to filmmaker Alejandro Jodorowsky and includes shades of Jodorowskys existentialism.

Drive has been described as a tough, hard-edged, neo-noir, art house feature, extremely violent and very stylish, with European art and grindhouse influences. Drive also refers to 1970s and 1980s cult hits such as The Day of the Locust 1975 and To Live and Die in L.A. 1985. Other influences can be seen in the neon-bright opening credits and the retro song picks – "a mix of tension-ratcheting synthesizer tones and catchy club anthems that collectively give the film its consistent tone". Drive s title sequence is hot-pink, which was inspired by Risky Business 1983. Refn has also indicated that the films romance was partly inspired by the films of writer-director John Hughes.

Refns inspiration for Drive came partly from reading Grimms Fairy Tales, and his goal was to make "a fairy tale that takes Los Angeles as the background," with The Driver as the hero. To play with the common theme of fairy tales, The Driver protects what is good while at the same time killing degenerate people in violent ways. Refn said Drive turns into a superhero film during the elevator scene when The Driver kills the villain. The director said he was also inspired by films such as Point Blank 1967, Two-Lane Blacktop 1971, The Driver 1978, and Thief 1981. Jean-Pierre Melvilles crime productions influenced the cinematography. Aminis script imposes "a kind of sideways moral code," where even those who comply with it are almost never rewarded for their efforts, as seen when The Driver helps Standard because of concern for Irene and her son. In their vehicles, the characters not only make escapes or commit murder, but try to find peace and search for romance.

The Driver has been compared to the Man With No Name, a character Clint Eastwood portrayed in the Sergio Leone western, because he almost never speaks, communicating mostly non-verbally. The Drivers meager dialogue is not designed to present him as tough, but to soften him. Refn chose to give The Driver very little dialogue and have him drive around listening to synth-pop music, taking control when it counts. Peter Debruge of Variety opined that what The Driver lacks in psychology, he makes up through action and stylish costuming. The Drivers wardrobe, in particular the satin jacket with the logo of a golden scorpion on the back, was inspired by the band KISS, and Kenneth Angers 1964 experimental film Scorpio Rising. Refn sees the former as the characters armor, and the logo as a sign of protection. According to reviewer Peter Canavese, the jacket is a reference to the fable of the scorpion and the frog, mentioned in the film, which evokes its use in the Orson Welles film Mr. Arkadin.

                                     

5.3. Reception Box office

Drive grossed $78.1–81.4 million worldwide. In North America, the film grossed a total of $35.1 million. The film opened in North America earning $11.3 million on the weekend of September 16, 2011, and played at 2.866 theaters. Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "C–" on an A+ to F scale. It was one of four wide releases that opened that weekend, and came in second. The other three new releases included the re-release of The Lion King on 3D, which was the top film, along with the Straw Dogs remake and the romantic comedy I Dont Know How She Does It. The film closed its North American theatrical run on February 9, 2012.

In the international marketplace, Drive grossed $41.1–46.3 million. The film had its highest-grossing box office in France, where it earned a total of €10.3 million $13.3 million. It opened in France on the weekend of October 5, 2011, at 246 theaters, eventually expanding to 360. The film opened in second place and had the highest per-screen theater gross for the weekend €10.722 $13.746. Its second-highest overseas gross came in the United Kingdom, where it earned a total of £3.1 million $4.6 million. Drive opened in the U.K. on September 27, 2011, at 176 theaters, eventually expanding to 190. The film opened in Australia on October 27, 2011, and grossed a total of $2.3 million in the country.

                                     

5.4. Reception Accolades

Drive was nominated for four British Academy Film Awards, which included Best Film, Best Direction, Best Actress in a Supporting Role Carey Mulligan, and Best Editing. It was one of the most-nominated films by critics groups in 2011. Albert Brooks had the most critics groups nominations. Nicholas Refn won the Best Director Award at the 64th Cannes Film Festival. The film also received an Academy Award nomination for Best Sound Editing.

                                     

6. Soundtrack

Drive Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was released in CD format to stores on September 27, 2011, by Lakeshore Records, and owned by Cutting Edge Film Scores. Prior to that, owing to viral reviews such as those found on social networking website Twitter, the soundtrack sold well on iTunes, climbing as high as number four on the sales charts. The album was released on vinyl in June 2012, by Mondo. The nineteen-track album has amassed positive reviews. James Verniere of the Boston Herald graded it an A, stating, "The cool crowd isnt just watching Drive ; theyre listening to it, too. The Drive soundtrack is such an integral part of the experience of the film, once you see it, you cant imagine the film without it." AllMusic reviewer James Christopher Monger selected opening track "Nightcall", "I Drive", "Hammer" and "Bride of Deluxe" as soundtracks highlights. Mayer Nissim of Digital Spy gave it a four out of five star rating, finding it as important as the film itself. She stated the album, beginning with non-Martinez songs instead of mixing it up for a more enjoyable listening experience, cost it a star. In September 2016, Lakeshore and Invada Records released a fifth anniversary special edition pressing of the soundtrack, featuring new liner notes and artwork. That same month, Johnny Jewel, College, Electric Youth, and Cliff Martinez discussed the impact of the soundtrack and film on their lives and contemporary music culture. Jewel told Vehlinggo that Drive s "blend of sonic and visual nostalgia with a contemporary spin is always deadly." The soundtrack was listed on Spin magazines list of 40 Movie Soundtracks That Changed Alternative Music.



                                     
  • Drive is a 2011 American action drama film directed by Nicolas Winding Refn and written by Hossein Amini, based on the 2005 novel Drive by James Sallis
  • Dacascos Drive 2002 film a Japanese film starring Ren Osugi Drive 2011 film an American crime drama film starring Ryan Gosling Drive 2019 film an
  • Mulholland Drive stylized as Mulholland Dr. is a 2001 American neo - noir mystery film written and directed by David Lynch and starring Naomi Watts, Laura
  • the year of 2011 as the best year for cinema, countering the notion of 1939 being film s best year overall, citing examples such as Drive The Tree of
  • 23, 2011 Best Film Drive The 6th Dublin Film Critics Circle Awards, given on December 23, 2011 honored the best in film for 2011 The crime Drive became
  • License to Drive is a 1988 teen comedy film written by Neil Tolkin and directed by Greg Beeman in his feature film directorial debut. It stars Corey Haim
  • Drive Angry alternatively titled Drive Angry 3D is a 2011 American action film directed by Patrick Lussier, who co - wrote it with Todd Farmer. It stars
  • They Drive by Night is a 1940 film noir directed by Raoul Walsh and starring George Raft, Ann Sheridan, Ida Lupino, and Humphrey Bogart. The picture involves
  • enclosed area, customers can view films from their cars. This list includes active and defunct drive - in theaters. About 330 drive - in theatres were established
  • Dead End Drive - In is a 1986 Australian action film about a teenage couple trapped in a drive - in theatre which is really a concentration camp for societal
  • Cairo Drive is a 2014 Egyptian documentary film by Sherief Elkatsha. The film explores Cairo s chaotic traffic and illustrates the ways in which individuals
  • Drive - in theatres also known as drive - in cinemas or drive - ins were once very popular in Australia. Although considered an American invention there is