ⓘ T

                                     

ⓘ T

T or t is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is tee, plural tees. It is derived from the Semitic letter taw via the Greek letter tau. In English, it is most commonly used to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, a sound it also denotes in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the most commonly used consonant and the second most common letter in English-language texts.

                                     

1. History

Taw was the last letter of the Western Semitic and Hebrew alphabets. The sound value of Semitic Taw, Greek alphabet Tαυ Tau, Old Italic and Latin T has remained fairly constant, representing in each of these; and it has also kept its original basic shape in most of these alphabets.

                                     

2. Use in writing systems

English

In English, ⟨t⟩ usually denotes the voiceless alveolar plosive International Phonetic Alphabet and X-SAMPA: /t, as in tart, tee, or ties, often with aspiration at the beginnings of words or before stressed vowels.

The digraph ⟨ti⟩ often corresponds to the sound /ʃ/ a voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant word-medially when followed by a vowel, as in nation, ratio, negotiation, and Croatia.

The letter ⟨t⟩ corresponds to the affricate /t͡ʃ/ in some words as a result of yod-coalescence.

A common digraph is ⟨th⟩, which usually represents a dental fricative, but occasionally represents /t/ as in Thomas and thyme.

Other languages

In the orthographies of other languages, ⟨t⟩ is often used for /t, the voiceless dental plosive /t̪/ or similar sounds.

Other systems

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, ⟨ t ⟩ denotes the voiceless alveolar plosive.

                                     

3.1. Related characters Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet

  • ʇ: Turned small t is used in the International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Ꞇ ꞇ: Insular T was used by William Pryce to designate the voiceless dental fricative
  • U+1D57 ᵗ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL T
  • U+1E97 ẗ LATIN SMALL LETTER T WITH DIAERESIS
  • U+1D40 ᵀ MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL T
  • U+1D1B ᴛ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL T
  • Uralic Phonetic Alphabet-specific symbols related to T
  • T with diacritics: ť t ẗ t ʈ ț ƫ ṱ ṯ ŧ ⱦ ƭ ᵵ ᶵ
  • Ʇ ʇ: Turned capital T and turned small t were used in transcriptions of the Dakota language in publications of the American Board of Ethnology in the late 19th century
  • ȶ: T with curl is used in Sino-Tibetanist linguistics
  • ₜ: Subscript small t was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902
                                     

3.2. Related characters Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

  • Т т: Cyrillic letter Te, also derived from Tau
  • Τ τ: Greek letter Tau
  • : Gothic letter tius, which derives from Greek Tau
  • ᛏ: Runic letter teiwaz, which probably derives from old Italic T
  • Ⲧ ⲧ: Coptic letter Taw, which derives from Greek Tau
  • : Semitic letter Taw, from which the following symbols originally derive
  • : Old Italic T, which derives from Greek Tau, and is the ancestor of modern Latin T
  • ፐ: One of the 26 consonantal letters of Geez script. The Geez abugida developed under the influence of Christian scripture by adding obligatory vocalic diacritics to the consonantal letters. Pesa ፐ is based on Tawe ተ.