ⓘ Television channel

Artsakh Public TV

Television in the Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Region was established within the scope of foundation programs of local television companies in the former Soviet Union Autonomous republics and regions. The implementation of the program was delayed because of the policy carried out by Azerbaijan against the ethnic Armenian population of the region. The dream of the Artsakh nation to have television alongside of regional radio with a biography of about six decades came true in 1988. In 2003 with passing the law "On Television and Radio" Artsakh TV gained public status. The TV channel offers ne ...

Bulgarian National Television

The Bulgarian National Television or BNT is the public broadcaster of Bulgaria. The company was founded in 1959 and began broadcasting on December 26 of the same year. It began broadcasting in color in 1970. BNTs headquarters are located in Sofia, Bulgaria, in a building located at the well-known address of 29 San Stefano Str. BNTs first live broadcast was the parade on the occasion of the October Revolution anniversary. BNT is funded from government funds around 60% with the rest coming from television commercials. It broadcasts two television channels: the over-the-air BNT 1 and the inte ...

Magyar Televizio

Magyar Televizio or MTV is a nationwide public television broadcasting organization in Hungary. Headquartered in Budapest, it is the oldest television broadcaster in Hungary and today airs five channels: M1 HD, M2 HD, M3, M4 Sport and M5. MTV is managed and primarily funded by the Media Service Support and Asset Management Fund Hungarian: Mediaszolgaltatas-tamogato es Vagyonkezelo Alap, abbreviated MTVA. This government organization, formed in 2011, also manages the public service broadcasters Magyar Radio and Duna Televizio as well as the Hungarian news agency Magyar Tavirati Iroda. On 1 ...

Vietnam Television

The first television broadcast in Vietnam was in 1966 when the United States set up 2-channels 1-Vietnamese and 1-English in Saigon for the Republic of Vietnam. Named Dài Truyền hình Viet Nam Vietnam Television, the network operated until the fall of Saigon. VTV was established with technical assistance and training from Cuba on 7 September 1970, in Hanoi, as a department of Voice of Vietnam. During the Vietnam War it broadcast intermittently from a mountainous region. After reunification in 1975, the former US-run stations in the south became part of the national network, and broadcasting ...


Hromadske.TV is an Internet television station in Ukraine that started to operate on 22 November 2013. The project was announced in June 2013 by 15 journalists. It is registered as an NGO.

Korean Central Television

Korean Central Television is a television service operated by the Korean Central Broadcasting Committee, a state-owned broadcaster in North Korea. It is the only official source of television news for North Koreans.


ⓘ Television channel

A television channel is a terrestrial frequency or virtual number over which a television station or television network is distributed. For example, in North America, "channel 2" refers to the terrestrial or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz, with carrier frequencies of 55.25 MHz for NTSC analog video and 59.75 MHz for analog audio, or 55.31 MHz for digital ATSC. Channels may be shared by many different television stations or cable-distributed channels depending on the location and service provider

Depending on the multinational bandplan for a given regional n, analog television channels are typically 6, 7, or 8 MHz in bandwidth, and therefore television channel frequencies vary as well. Channel numbering is also different. Digital terrestrial television channels are the same as their analog predecessors for legacy reasons, however through multiplexing, each physical radio frequency RF channel can carry several digital subchannels. On satellites, each transponder normally carries one channel, however multiple small, independent channels can be on one transponder, with some loss of bandwidth due to the need for guard bands between unrelated transmissions. ISDB, used in Japan and Brazil, has a similar segmented mode.

Preventing interference between terrestrial channels in the same area is accomplished by skipping at least one channel between two analog stations frequency allocations. Where channel numbers are sequential, frequencies are not contiguous, such as channel 6 to 7 skip from VHF low to high band, and channel 13 to 14 jump to UHF. On cable TV, it is possible to use adjacent channels only because they are all at the same power, something which could only be done terrestrially if the two stations were transmitted at the same power and height from the same location. For DTT, selectivity is inherently better, therefore channels adjacent either to analog or digital stations can be used even in the same area.


1. Other meanings

Commonly, the term "television channel" is used to mean a television station or its pay television counterpart both outlined below. Sometimes, especially outside the U.S. and in the context of pay television, it is used instead of the term television network, which otherwise in its technical use above describes a group of geographically-distributed television stations that share affiliation/ownership and some or all of their programming with one another. This terminology may be muddled somewhat in other jurisdictions, for instance Europe, where terrestrial channels are commonly mapped from physical channels to common numerical positions i.e. BBC One does not broadcast on any particular "channel 1" but is nonetheless mapped to the "1" input on most British television sets. On digital platforms, such location channels are usually arbitrary and changeable, due to virtual channels.


1.1. Other meanings Television station

A television station is a type of terrestrial station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. Traditionally, TV stations made their broadcasts by sending specially-encoded radio signals over the air, called terrestrial television. Individual television stations are usually granted licenses by a government agency to use a particular section of the radio spectrum a channel through which they send their signals. Some stations use LPTV broadcast translators to retransmit to further areas.

Many television stations are now in the process of converting from analogue terrestrial NTSC, PAL or SECAM broadcast, to digital terrestrial ATSC broadcast, DVB or ISDB.


1.2. Other meanings Non-terrestrial television channels

Because some regions have had difficulty picking up terrestrial television signals particularly in mountainous areas, alternative means of distribution such as direct-to-home satellite and cable television have been introduced. Television channels specifically built to run on cable or satellite blur the line between TV station and TV network. That fact led some early cable channels to call themselves superstations.

Satellite and cable have created changes. Local programming TV stations in an area can sign-up or even be required to be carried on cable, but content providers like TLC cannot. They are not licensed to run broadcast equipment like a station, and they do not regularly provide content to licensed broadcasters either. Furthermore, a distributor like TNT may start producing its own programming, and shows presented exclusively on pay-TV by one distributor may be syndicated to terrestrial stations. The cost of creating a nationwide channel has been reduced and there has been a huge increase in the number of such channels, with most catering to a small group. See also: significantly viewed.

From the definitions above, use of the terms "network" or "station" in reference to nationwide cable or satellite channels is technically inaccurate. However, this is an arbitrary, inconsequential distinction, and varies from company to company. Indeed, the term "cable network" has entered into common usage in the United States in reference to such channels. There is even some geographical separation among "national" pay television channels in the U.S., be it programming, or simply regionalized advertising inserted by the local cable company.

Should a legal distinction be necessary between a location channel as defined above and a television channel in this sense, the terms "programming service" e.g. or "programming undertaking" for instance, may be used instead of the latter definition.

A person viewing by subscription providers might not know what kind of organization is responsible for a given program, especially if it is syndicated, so what seems to be a station or a network may be neither.

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