ⓘ State religion

Hawaiian religion

Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as other animals, the waves, and the sky. Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaii between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known ...

Ancient Greek religion

Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices. These groups varied enough for it to be possible to speak of Greek religions or "cults" in the plural, though most of them shared similarities. Most ancient Greeks recognized the twelve major Olympian gods and goddesses - Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus - although philosophies such as Stoicism and some forms of Platonism use ...

Ancient Egyptian religion

Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals that formed an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians interactions with many deities believed to be present in, and in control of, the world. Rituals such as prayer and offerings were provided to the gods to gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on the pharaohs, the rulers of Egypt, believed to possess divine powers by virtue of their positions. They acted as intermediaries between their people and the gods, and were obligated to sustain the gods through ritual ...

Ancient Semitic religion

Ancient Semitic religion encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic peoples from the ancient Near East and Northeast Africa. Since the term Semitic itself represents a rough category when referring to cultures, as opposed to languages, the definitive bounds of the term "ancient Semitic religion" are only approximate. Semitic traditions and their pantheons fall into regional categories: Canaanite religions of the Levant, the Sumerian tradition–inspired Assyro-Babylonian religion of Mesopotamia, the Ancient Hebrew religion of the Israelites, and Arabian polytheism. Semitic polythe ...

Chinese folk religion

Chinese folk religion or 中國 民間 信仰, zhōng-guo min-jiān xìn-yǎng), also called Chinese popular religion or Shenism or Shenism, is the most widespread form of religion in China, and among Chinese people worldwide. It is the religious tradition of the Han Chinese, and involves veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods. Worship is devoted to a multiplicity of gods and immortals, who can be deities of phenomena, of human behaviour ...

Religion in Carthage

The religion of Carthage in North Africa was a direct continuation of the Phoenician variety of the polytheistic ancient Canaanite religion with significant local modifications. Whether the religion of Carthage included propitiatory child sacrifice has been subject of scholarly debate.


ⓘ State religion

A state religion is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. A state with an official religion, while not secular, is not necessarily a theocracy, a country whose rulers have both secular and spiritual authority. State religions are official or government-sanctioned establishments of a religion, but the state does not need be under the control of the religion nor is the state-sanctioned religion necessarily under the control of the state.

Official religions have been known throughout human history in almost all types of cultures, reaching into the Ancient Near East and prehistory. The relation of religious cult and the state was discussed by Varro, under the term of theologia civilis "civic theology". The first state-sponsored Christian church was the Armenian Apostolic Church, established in 301 CE. In Christianity, as the term church is typically applied to a Christian place of worship or organisations incorporating such ones, the term state church is associated with Christianity as sanctioned by the government, historically the state church of the Roman Empire in the last centuries of the Empires existence, and is sometimes used to denote a specific modern national branch of Christianity. Closely related to state churches are ecclesiae, which are similar but carry a more minor connotation.

In the Middle East, many states with primarily Islamic population have Islam as their state religion, either as the nondenominational Muslim, Shiite or Sunni variety, though the degree of religious restrictions on the citizens everyday life varies by country. Rulers of Saudi Arabia use both secular and religious power, while Irans secular presidents are supposed to follow the decisions of religious authorities since the revolution of 1979. Turkey, which also has a primarily Muslim population, became a secular country after Ataturks Reforms, although unlike the Russian Revolution of the same time period, it did not result in the adoption of state atheism.

The degree to which an official national religion is imposed upon citizens by the state in contemporary society varies considerably; from high as in Saudi Arabia to minimal or none at all as in Denmark, England, Iceland, and Greece.


1. Types

The degree and nature of state backing for denomination or creed designated as a state religion can vary. It can range from mere endorsement with or without financial support with freedom for other faiths to practice, to prohibiting any competing religious body from operating and to persecuting the followers of other sects. In Europe, competition between Catholic and Protestant denominations for state sponsorship in the 16th century evolved the principle Cuius regio, eius religio states follow the religion of the ruler embodied in the text of the treaty that marked the Peace of Augsburg, 1555. In England, Henry VIII broke with Rome in 1534, being declared the Supreme Head of the Church of England, the official religion of England continued to be "Catholicism without the Pope" until after his death in 1547, while in Scotland the Church of Scotland opposed the religion of the ruler.

In some cases, an administrative region may sponsor and fund a set of religious denominations; such is the case in Alsace-Moselle in France under its local law, following the pre-1905 French concordatory legal system and patterns in Germany.

In some communist states, notably in North Korea and Cuba, the state sponsors religious organizations, and activities outside those state-sponsored religious organizations are met with various degrees of official disapproval. In these cases, state religions are widely seen as efforts by the state to prevent alternate sources of authority.


1.1. Types State churches

There is also a difference between a "state church" and the broader term of "state religion". A "state church" is a state religion created by a state for use exclusively by that state. An example of a "state religion" that is not also a "state church" is Roman Catholicism in Costa Rica, which was accepted as the state religion in the 1949 Constitution, despite the lack of a national church. In the case of a "state church", the state has absolute control over the church, but in the case of a "state religion", the church is ruled by an exterior body; in the case of Catholicism, the Vatican has control over the church. In either case, the official state religion has some influence over the ruling of the state. As of 2012, there are only five state churches left, as most countries that once featured state churches have separated the church from their government.


1.2. Types Disestablishment

Disestablishment is the process of repealing a churchs status as an organ of the state. In a state where an established church is in place, those opposed to such a move may be described as antidisestablishmentarians. This word is, however, most usually associated with the debate on the position of the Anglican churches in the British Isles: the Church of Ireland disestablished in 1871, the Church of England in Wales disestablished in 1920, and the Church of England itself which remains established.


2. Current state religions

Currently, the following religions have been established as state religions in some countries. All are versions of Christianity, Islam or Buddhism.


The following states recognize some form of Christianity as their state or official religion by denomination:


The following states recognize some form of Protestantism as their state or official religion:


2.1. Current state religions Buddhism

Governments where Buddhism, either a specific form of it, or Buddhism as a whole, has been established as an official religion:

  • Laos: According to the Lao Constitution, Buddhism is given special privilege in the country. The state respects and protects all the lawful activities of Buddhism.
  • Thailand: According to Thai constitution the country is secular and freedom of religion is guaranteed but some important privileges are also given to Buddhism such as the government supports and protect Buddhism as the majority religion practised by local Thais, giving money to Buddhist monks to construct Buddhist temples.
  • Cambodia: The Constitution declared Buddhism as official religion of the country. About 97% of the Cambodias population is Buddhist.
  • Myanmar: Section 361 of the Constitution states that "The Union recognizes the special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the Union."
  • Sri Lanka: The constitution of Sri Lanka states under Chapter II, Article 9, "The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and accordingly it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana, while assuring to all religions the rights granted by Articles 10 and 141e. But the country does not officially have a state religion. It is regarded by the Supreme Court as being a secular country.
  • Bhutan: The Constitution defines Buddhism as the "spiritual heritage of Bhutan" and it also mandates that the Druk Gyalpo King should appoint the Je Khenpo and Dratshang Lhentshog The Commission for Monastic Affairs.


2.2. Current state religions Catholicism

Jurisdictions where Catholicism has been established as a state or official religion:

  • Costa Rica: article 75 of the constitution of Costa Rica confirms that "The Catholic and Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State, which contributes to its maintenance, without preventing the free exercise in the Republic of other forms of worship that are not opposed to universal morality or good customs."
  • Vatican City: the Vatican is an Elective, Theocratic, or sacerdotal Absolute Monarchy ruled by the Pope, who is also the Vicar of the Catholic Church. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See Latin: Sancta Sedes and the location of the Popes official residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace.
  • Monaco: article 9 of the constitution of Monaco describes the Catholic, and apostolic and religion as the religion of the state.
  • Malta: Article 2 of the Constitution of Malta declares that "the religion of Malta is the Catholic and Apostolic Religion"
  • Liechtenstein: the constitution of Liechtenstein describes the Catholic Church as the state religion and enjoying "the full protection of the State". The constitution does however ensure that people of other faiths "shall be entitled to practise their creeds and to hold religious services to the extent consistent with morality and public order."

Jurisdictions that give various degrees of recognition in their constitutions to Roman Catholicism without establishing it as the state religion:

  • Dominican Republic
  • Poland
  • Haiti
  • Brazil – the Brazilian State recognizes the "peculiar character" of the Catholic Church under the other religions in its legal system see Article 16 of Decree 7107/2010, which is why the law recognizes the Virgin Mary as the "patroness of Brazil.
  • Panama – the Constitution recognizes Catholicism as "the religion of the majority" of citizens but does not designate it as the official state religion.
  • Andorra
  • Paraguay
  • El Salvador – Although Article 3 of the El Salvadoran constitution states that "no restrictions shall be established that are based on differences of nationality, race, sex or religion", Article 26 states that the state recognizes the Catholic Church and gives it legal preference.
  • East Timor – While the Constitution of East Timor enshrines the principles of freedom of religion and separation of church and state in Section 45 Comma 1, it also acknowledges "the participation of the Catholic Church in the process of national liberation" in its preamble although this has no legal value.
  • Peru
  • Argentina – article 2 of the Constitution explicitly states that the government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic Faith, but the constitution does not establish a state religion. The former Constitution modified in 1994 stated that the President of the Republic must be a Roman Catholic.
  • Italy – The Constitution of Italy recognises the Catholic Church and the state as "independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere"


2.3. Current state religions Eastern Orthodoxy

  • Greece: The Church of Greece is recognized by the Greek Constitution as the prevailing religion in Greece. and is the only country in the world where Eastern Orthodoxy is clearly recognized as a state religion, However, this provision does not give exclusivity of worship to the Church of Greece, while all other religions are recognized as equal and may be practised freely.

The jurisdictions below give various degrees of recognition in their constitutions to Eastern Orthodoxy, but without establishing it as the state religion:

  • Finland: Finnish Orthodox Church has a special relationship with the state, along with Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. These two churches are established as ”national churches”.
  • Georgia: Georgian Orthodox Church is not the state church of Georgia but has a special constitutional agreement with the state, with the constitution recognising "the special role of the Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Georgia in the history of Georgia and its independence from the state." See also Concordat of 2002
  • Bulgaria: in the Bulgarian Constitution, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church is recognized as "the traditional religion" of the Bulgarian people, but the state itself remains secular.


2.4. Current state religions Protestantism

The following states recognize some form of Protestantism as their state or official religion:


2.5. Current state religions Anglicanism

The Anglican Church of England is the established church in England as well as all three of the Crown dependencies.

  • England: the Church of England is the established church in England, but not in the United Kingdom as a whole. It is the only established Anglican church worldwide. The Anglican Church in Wales, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the Church of Ireland are not established churches and they are independent of the Church of England. The British monarch is the titular Supreme Governor of the Church of England. The 26 most senior bishops in the Church of England are Lords Spiritual and have seats in the House of Lords of the UK Parliament.
  • Isle of Man: the Church of England is the established church on the Isle of Man. The Bishop of Sodor and Man is an ex officio member of the Legislative Council of the upper house of the Tynwald.
  • Guernsey: the Church of England is the established church in the Bailiwick of Guernsey, and the leader of the Church of England in the territory is the Dean of Guernsey.
  • Jersey: the Church of England is the established church in Jersey, and the leader of the church on the island is the Dean of Jersey, a non-voting member of the States of Jersey.

2.6. Current state religions Calvinism

  • Tuvalu: The Church of Tuvalu is the state religion, although in practice this merely entitles it to "the privilege of performing special services on major national events". The Constitution of Tuvalu guarantees freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice, the freedom to change religion, the right not to receive religious instruction at school or to attend religious ceremonies at school, and the right not to "take an oath or make an affirmation that is contrary to his religion or belief".

2.7. Current state religions Lutheranism

Jurisdictions where a Lutheran church has been established as a state religion include the Nordic countries.

  • Denmark: section 4 of the Constitution of Denmark confirms the Church of Denmark as the established church.
  • Faroe Islands: the Church of the Faroe Islands is the state church of the Faroe Islands, an autonomous administrative division within the Danish Realm.
  • Greenland: the Church of Denmark is the state church of Greenland, an autonomous administrative division within the Danish Realm.
  • Finland: the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland has a special relationship with the Finnish state, its internal structure being described in a special law, the Church Act. The Church Act can be amended only by a decision of the synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church and subsequent ratification by the Parliament of Finland. The Church Act is protected by the Constitution of Finland and the state cannot change the Church Act without changing the constitution. The church has the power to tax its members. The state collects these taxes for the church, for a fee. On the other hand, the church is required to give a burial place for everyone in its graveyards. The President of Finland also decides the themes for intercession days. The church does not consider itself a state church, as the Finnish state does not have the power to influence its internal workings or its theology, although it has a veto in those changes of the internal structure which require changing the Church Act. Neither does the Finnish state accord any precedence to Lutherans or the Lutheran faith in its own acts. The Union of Freethinkers of Finland has criticized the official endorsement of the two churches by the Finnish state, and has campaigned for the separation of church and state.
  • Iceland: the Constitution of Iceland confirms the Church of Iceland as the state church of Iceland.
  • Norway: the Church of Norway became Norways state church in the middle ages. The modern Constitution of Norway stipulates that "the Church of Norway, an Evangelical-Lutheran church, will remain the Established Church of Norway and will as such be supported by the State" and requires the King of Norway to be a member; the wording is identical to the provision for the Danish state church in the Danish constitution. This was amended in 2012, from "the Evangelical-Lutheran religion remains the public religion of the State", in force between 1814 and 2012. The church is granted autonomy in doctrine and appointment of bishops. From the Reformation in 1536/37, the Church of Norway was fully integrated with the rest of the state administration and a part of the civil service, and church employees remained civil servants until 2017. A bill passed in 2016 established the Church of Norway as an independent legal entity separate from the state administration from 1 January 2017. The Church of Norway occupies a unique constitutional role in Norway, is subject to the Church Act, is funded by the state and local government authorities are required by law to support its activities, and the church elections are organisations together with the other government-organised elections in Norway; however from 2017 the church is no longer part of the civil service.
  • Sweden: the Church of Sweden was until 2000 the official state church of Sweden, and Lutheranism was, therefore, the state religion of Sweden. In spite of the separation between the state and the church in 2000, the Church of Sweden still has a special status in Sweden. Sweden is therefore often seen as a midway between having a state religion and not. The church has its own legal regulation in the 1998 Church of Sweden Act, which regulates the churchs basic structure, creeds and right to tax members of the church. According to the Act, the Church of Sweden must be a democratic, Lutheran peoples church. Only the Swedish Riksdag can change this fact. The connections to the Swedish royal family are complicated. For example, the Swedish constitution stipulates that the Monarch of Sweden must be a true Lutheran, accepting the doctrine of the Church of Sweden. All members of the royal house must accept the same doctrine to be able to inherit the Throne of Sweden. The parishes of the Church of Sweden were the smallest administrative entities in Sweden and were used as civil registration and taxation units until 1 January 2016.


2.8. Current state religions Other/Mixed

  • France: The local law in Alsace-Moselle accords official status to four religions in this specific region of France: Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism and Calvinism. The law is a remnant of the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801, which was abrogated in the rest of France by the law of 1905 on the separation of church and state. However, at the time, Alsace-Moselle had been annexed by Germany. The Concordat, therefore, remained in force in these areas, and it was not abrogated when France regained control of the region in 1918. Therefore, the separation of church and state, part of the French concept of Laïcite, does not apply in this region.
  • Hungary: The preamble to the Hungarian Constitution of 2011 describes Hungary as "part of Christian Europe" and acknowledges "the role of Christianity in preserving nationhood", while Article VII provides that "the State shall cooperate with the Churches for community goals". However, the constitution also guarantees freedom of religion and separation of church and state.
  • Scotland: The Church of Scotland is the national church. The Church of Scotland Act 1921 settled the Churchs total independence from the state in spiritual matters.
  • Portugal: Although Church and State are formally separate, the Catholic Church still receives certain privileges.
  • Russia: The Russian Orthodox Church acts as the de facto if not de jure privileged religion of the state, claiming the right to decide which other religions or denominations are to be granted the right of registration.
  • Samoa: In June 2017, Parliament voted to amend the wording of Article 1 of the constitution, thereby making Christianity the state religion. The status of the religion had previously only been mentioned in the preamble, which prime minister Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi considered legally inadequate.
  • Armenia: Armenian Apostolic Church is not the state church of Armenia but has a special constitutional agreement with the state, with the constitution recognising "The Republic of Armenia shall recognise the exclusive mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church, as a national church, in the spiritual life of the Armenian people, in the development of their national culture and preservation of their national identity."
  • Lebanon: There are 18 officially recognized religious groups in Lebanon, each with its own family law legislation and set of religious courts. Under the terms of an agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, the president of the country must be a Maronite, the Prime Minister must be a Sunni, and the Speaker of Parliament must be a Shia.
  • Zambia: The preamble to the Zambian Constitution of 1991 declares Zambia to be "a Christian nation", while also guaranteeing freedom of religion.


2.9. Current state religions Islam

Many Muslim-majority countries have constitutionally established Islam, or a specific form of it, as a state religion. Proselytism converting people to another religion is often illegal in such states.

  • Bangladesh: Article 2A of the Constitution of Bangladesh: "The state religion of the Republic is Islam, but the State shall ensure equal status and equal right in the practice of the Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and other religions."
  • Iran: Article 12 of the Constitution of Iran: "The official religion of Iran is Islam and the Twelver Jafari school, Greek Catholic Melkite, Maronite, and Syrian Orthodox). The fact that the Muslim population was not defined as a religious community does not affect the rights of the Muslim community to practice their faith. At the end of the period covered by the 2009 U.S. International Religious Freedom Report, several of these denominations were pending official government recognition; however, the Government has allowed adherents of not officially recognized groups the freedom to practice. In 1961, legislation gave Muslim Sharia courts exclusive jurisdiction in matters of personal status. Three additional religious communities have subsequently been recognized by Israeli law: the Druze prior under Islamic jurisdiction, the Evangelical Episcopal Church, and the Bahai. These groups have their own religious courts as official state courts for personal status matters see millet system.

    The structure and goals of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel are governed by Israeli law, but the law does not say explicitly that it is a state Rabbinate. However, outspoken Israeli secularists such as Shulamit Aloni and Uri Avnery have long maintained that it is that in practice. Non-recognition of other streams of Judaism such as Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism is the cause of some controversy; rabbis belonging to these currents are not recognized as such by state institutions and marriages performed by them are not recognized as valid. As pointed out by Avnery and Aloni, the essential problem is that Israel carries on the top-down Ottoman millet system, under which the government reserves the complete discretion of recognizing some religious groups and not recognizing others. As of 2015 marriage in Israel provides no provision for civil marriage, marriage between people of different religions, marriages by people who do not belong to one of nine recognised religious communities, or same-sex marriages, although there is recognition of marriages performed abroad.


2.10. Current state religions Political religions

In some countries, there is a political ideology sponsored by the government that may be called political religion.

  • North Korea: the North Korean government has promulgated Juche as a political alternative to traditional religion. The doctrine advocates a strong nationalist propaganda basis and is fundamentally opposed to Christianity and Buddhism, the two largest religions on the Korean peninsula. Juche theoreticians have, however, incorporated religious ideas into the state ideology. According to government figures, Juche is the largest political religion in North Korea. The public practice of all other religions is overseen and subject to heavy surveillance by the state.
  • Comoros: Preamble to the 2001 Constitution of the Comoros: ".to draw from Islam, the religion of the state."
  • Algeria: Article 2 of the Algerian Constitution of 2016: "Islam shall be the religion of the State."
  • Egypt: Article 2 of the Egyptian Constitution of 2014: "Islam is the religion of the State".
  • Bahrain: Article 2 of the Constitution of Bahrain: "The religion of the State is Islam."
  • Djibouti: Article 1 of the Constitution of Djibouti: "Islam is the Religion of the State."
  • Afghanistan: Article 2 of the Afghan constitution: "The sacred religion of Islam is the religion of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan." Officially, Afghanistan has continuously been an Islamic state under various constitutions since at least 1987.
  • Brunei: Article 3 of the Constitution of Brunei: "The official religion of Brunei Darussalam shall be the Islamic Religion."

2.11. Current state religions Additional notes

  • Indonesia does not declare or designate a state religion. However, the government only recognizes six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Confucianism. The Constitution of Indonesia guarantees freedom of religion and the practice of other religions and beliefs, including the animistic indigenous ones, is not prohibited by any laws. Indonesians practicing traditional polytheistic and animists as well as Sikhs and Jains are often counted as "Hindu" for government purposes. Atheism, although not prosecuted, is discouraged by the state ideology of Pancasila. In addition, the province of Aceh receives a special status and a higher degree of autonomy, in which it may enact laws qanuns based on the Sharia and enforce it, especially to its Muslim residents.
  • Switzerland is officially secular at the federal level but 24 of the 26 cantons support either the Swiss Reformed Church or the Roman Catholic Church
  • Singapore is officially a secular country and does not have a state religion, and has been named in one study as the "most religiously diverse nation in the world", with no religious group forming a majority. However, the government gives official recognition to ten different religions, namely Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism, Sikhism, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Jainism and the Bahai Faith, and Singapores penal code explicitly prohibits "wounding religious feelings". The Jehovahs Witnesses and Unification Church are also banned in Singapore, as the government deems them to be a threat to national security.

3.1. Former state religions Egypt and Sumer

The concept of state religions was known as long ago as the empires of Egypt and Sumer, when every city state or people had its own god or gods. Many of the early Sumerian rulers were priests of their patron city god. Some of the earliest semi-mythological kings may have passed into the pantheon, like Dumuzid, and some later kings came to be viewed as divine soon after their reigns, like Sargon the Great of Akkad. One of the first rulers to be proclaimed a god during his actual reign was Gudea of Lagash, followed by some later kings of Ur, such as Shulgi. Often, the state religion was integral to the power base of the reigning government, such as in Egypt, where Pharaohs were often thought of as embodiments of the god Horus.


3.2. Former state religions Sassanid Empire

Zoroastrianism was the state religion of the Sassanid dynasty which lasted until 651, when Persia was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate. However, it persisted as the state religion of the independent state of Hyrcania until the 15th century.

The tiny kingdom of Adiabene in northern Mesopotamia converted to Judaism around 34 CE.


3.3. Former state religions Greek city-states

Many of the Greek city-states also had a god or goddess associated with that city. This would not be its only god or goddess, but the one that received special honors. In ancient Greece, the city of Athens had Athena, Sparta had Ares, Delphi had Apollo and Artemis, Olympia had Zeus, Corinth had Poseidon and Thebes had Demeter.


3.4. Former state religions Roman religion and Christianity

In Rome, the office of Pontifex Maximus came to be reserved for the Emperor, who was often declared a god posthumously, or sometimes during his reign. Failure to worship the Emperor as a god was at times punishable by death, as the Roman government sought to link emperor worship with loyalty to the Empire. Many Christians and Jews were subject to persecution, torture and death in the Roman Empire because it was against their beliefs to worship the Emperor.

In 311, Emperor Galerius, on his deathbed, declared a religious indulgence to Christians throughout the Roman Empire, focusing on the ending of anti-Christian persecution. Constantine I and Licinius, the two Augusti, by the Edict of Milan of 313, enacted a law allowing religious freedom to everyone within the Roman Empire. Furthermore, the Edict of Milan cited that Christians may openly practice their religion unmolested and unrestricted, and provided that properties taken from Christians be returned to them unconditionally. Although the Edict of Milan allowed religious freedom throughout the Empire, it did not abolish nor disestablish the Roman state cult Roman polytheistic paganism. The Edict of Milan was written in such a way as to implore the blessings of the deity.

Constantine called up the First Council of Nicaea in 325, although he was not a baptised Christian until years later. Despite enjoying considerable popular support, Christianity was still not the official state religion in Rome, although it was in some neighbouring states such as Armenia, Iberia, and Aksum.

Roman Religion Neoplatonic Hellenism was restored for a time by the Emperor Julian from 361 to 363. Julian does not appear to have reinstated the persecutions of the earlier Roman emperors.

Catholic Christianity, as opposed to Arianism and other ideologies deemed heretical, was declared to be the state religion of the Roman Empire on 27 February 380 by the decree De fide catolica of Emperor Theodosius I.


3.5. Former state religions Han dynasty Confucianism

In China, the Han dynasty 206 BCE – 220 CE advocated Confucianism as the de facto state religion, establishing tests based on Confucian texts as an entrance requirement into government service - although, in fact, the "Confucianism" advocated by the Han emperors may be more properly termed a sort of Confucian Legalism or "State Confucianism". This sort of Confucianism continued to be regarded by the emperors, with a few notable exceptions, as a form of state religion from this time until the overthrow of the imperial system of government in 1911. Note, however, there is a debate over whether Confucianism including Neo-Confucianism is a religion or purely a philosophical system.


3.6. Former state religions Yuan dynasty Buddhism

During the Mongol Yuan dynasty 1271–1368 CE, Tibetan Buddhism was established as the de facto state religion by the Mongol ruler Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty. The top-level department and government agency known as the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs Xuanzheng Yuan was set up in Khanbaliq modern Beijing to supervise Buddhist monks throughout the empire. Since Kublai Khan only esteemed the Sakya sect of Tibetan Buddhism, other religions became less important. Before the end of the Yuan dynasty, 14 leaders of the Sakya sect had held the post of Imperial Preceptor Dishi, thereby enjoy special power.


3.7. Former state religions Golden Horde and Ilkhanate

Shamanism and Buddhism were once the dominant religions among the ruling class of the Mongol khanates of Golden Horde and Ilkhanate, the two western khanates of the Mongol Empire. In the early days, the rulers of both khanates increasingly adopted Tibetan Buddhism, similar to the Yuan dynasty at that time. However, the Mongol rulers Ghazan of Ilkhanate and Uzbeg of Golden Horde converted to Islam in 1295 CE because of the Muslim Mongol emir Nawruz and in 1313 CE because of Sufi Bukharan sayyid and sheikh Ibn Abdul Hamid respectively. Their official favoring of Islam as the state religion coincided with a marked attempt to bring the regime closer to the non-Mongol majority of the regions they ruled. In Ilkhanate, Christian and Jewish subjects lost their equal status with Muslims and again had to pay the poll tax; Buddhists had the starker choice of conversion or expulsion. In Golden Horde, Buddhism and Shamanism among the Mongols were proscribed, and by 1315, Uzbeg had successfully Islamicized the Horde, killing Jochid princes and Buddhist lamas who opposed his religious policy and succession of the throne.


3.8. Former state religions Modern era

  • Nepal was formerly the worlds only Hindu kingdom, but ceased to be so in 2015 when Nepal became a democratic country and the new constitution declared it a secular state while upholding Hinduism as official status and guaranteeing religious freedom to minorities.
  • Norway: Paragraph 4 in the Constitution of Norway states that the Sovereign Monarch must be confessing the Lutheran Evangelical Religion. As of 2012 the Constitution of Norway no longer names Lutheranism as the official religion of the state, but article 16 says that "The Church of Norway will remain the Established Church of Norway and will as such be supported by the State." As of 1 January 2017 the Church of Norway is a legal entity independent of and formally and completely legally separated from the state.
  • Netherlands: Article 133 of the 1814 Constitution stipulated the Sovereign Prince should be a member of the Reformed Church; this provision was dropped in the 1815 Constitution. The 1815 Constitution also provided for a state salary and pension for the priesthood of established religions at the time Protestantism, Catholicism and Judaism. This settlement, nicknamed de zilveren koorde the silver cord, was abolished in 1983.

3.9. Former state religions Protestant colonies

  • The colonies of New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia maintained the Church of England as the established church.
  • The Colony of Maryland was founded by a charter granted in 1632 to George Calvert, secretary of state to Charles I, and his son Cecil, both recent converts to Roman Catholicism. Under their leadership, many English Catholic gentry families settled in Maryland. However, the colonial government was officially neutral in religious affairs, granting toleration to all Christian groups and enjoining them to avoid actions which antagonized the others. On several occasions, low-church dissenters led insurrections which temporarily overthrew the Calvert rule. In 1689, when William and Mary came to the English throne, they acceded to demands to revoke the original royal charter. In 1701, the Church of England was proclaimed, and in the course of the 18th century Maryland Catholics were first barred from public office, then disenfranchised, although not all of the laws passed against them notably laws restricting property rights and imposing penalties for sending children to be educated in foreign Catholic institutions were enforced, and some Catholics even continued to hold public office.
  • The colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Haven, and New Hampshire were founded by Puritan Calvinist Protestants, and had Congregational established churches.

3.10. Former state religions Catholic colonies

  • When Spanish Florida was ceded to Great Britain in 1763, the British divided Florida into two colonies, East and West Florida, which both continued a policy of toleration for the Catholic residents.
  • When New France was transferred to Great Britain in 1763, the Roman Catholic Church remained under toleration, but Huguenots were allowed entrance where they had formerly been banned from settlement by Parisian authorities.

3.11. Former state religions Colonies with no established church

  • The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, founded by religious dissenters forced to flee the Massachusetts Bay colony, is widely regarded as the first polity to grant religious freedom to all its citizens, although Catholics were barred intermittently. Baptists, Seekers/Quakers and Jews made this colony their home. The King Charles Charter of 1663 guaranteed "full liberty in religious concernments".
  • Delaware Colony had no established church, but was contested between Catholics and Quakers.
  • The Province of Pennsylvania was founded by Quakers, but the colony never had an established church.
  • The Province of New Jersey, without official religion, had a significant Quaker lobby, but Calvinists of all types also had a presence.


3.12. Former state religions Non-British colonies

These areas were disestablished and dissolved, yet their presences were tolerated by the English and later British colonial governments, as Foreign Protestants, whose communities were expected to observe their own ways without causing controversy or conflict for the prevalent colonists. After the Revolution, their ethno-religious backgrounds were chiefly sought as the most compatible non-British Isles immigrants.

  • New Netherland was founded by Dutch Reformed Calvinists.
  • New Sweden was founded by Church of Sweden Lutherans.

3.13. Former state religions State of Deseret

The State of Deseret was a provisional state of the United States, proposed in 1849, by Mormon settlers in Salt Lake City. The provisional state existed for slightly over two years, but attempts to gain recognition by the United States government floundered for various reasons. The Utah Territory which was then founded was under Mormon control, and repeated attempts to gain statehood met resistance, in part due to concerns that the principle of separation of church and state conflicted with the practice of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints placing their highest value on "following counsel" in virtually all matters relating to their church-centered lives. The state of Utah was eventually admitted to the union on 4 January 1896, after the various issues had been resolved.