ⓘ Zona glomerulosa

                                     

ⓘ Zona glomerulosa

The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule. Its cells are ovoid and arranged in clusters or arches.

In response to increased potassium levels, renin or decreased blood inflow to the kidneys, cells of the Zona glomerulosa produce and secrete the mineralocorticoid aldosterone into the blood in the renin–angiotensin system. Although sustained production of aldosterone requires sustained calcium entry through low-voltage activated CA 2 channels, isolated cells, the Zona glomerulosa are considered nonexcitable, with recorded membrane voltages that are too hyperpolarizing allow CA 2 recording channels. However, mouse Zona glomerulosa cells within adrenal slices spontaneously generate membrane potential oscillations of low periodicity, this innate electrical excitability of Zona glomerulosa cells provides a platform for the production of periodic CA 2 channels signal that can be controlled by angiotensin II and extracellular potassium, the 2 major regulators of aldosterone production. Aldosterone regulates the concentration of electrolytes, primarily sodium and potassium, acting on the distal convoluted tubules in the nephrons of the kidneys: increase sodium reabsorption, increase potassium excretion, increase water reabsorption through osmosis.

Enzyme, aldosterone synthase, also known as CYP11B2 acts in this location the expression of neuron-specific proteins in the Zona glomerulosa cells of human adrenocortical tissues has been predicted and reported by several authors, and it has been suggested that the protein expression of neuronal cell adhesion molecules NCAM in cells of the Zona glomerulosa reflects the regenerative feature of these cells, which lose the NCAM immunoreactivity after moving to the Zona fasciculata. However, together with other data on neuroendocrine properties of the cells of the Zona glomerulosa, NCAM expression may reflect a neuroendocrine differentiation of these cells. Voltage-dependent calcium channels have been detected in the Zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal cortex, which suggests that calcium-channel blockers may directly influence the adrenocortical biosynthesis of aldosterone in the body.

                                     
  • The zona fasciculata constitutes the middle and also the widest zone of the adrenal cortex, sitting directly beneath the zona glomerulosa Constituent
  • based on structural and anatomic characteristics. Zona glomerulosa The outermost layer, the zona glomerulosa is the main site for the production of aldosterone
  • derivative of corticosterone. It serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of aldosterone by the enzyme aldosterone synthase in the zona glomerulosa
  • main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It is essential for sodium
  • as a screening test for PHA. In cats with unilateral or bilateral zona glomerulosa tumors, the PAC may be very high while the PRA is completely suppressed
  • adrenal cortex itself is divided into three zones: the zona glomerulosa the zona fasciculata and the zona reticularis. The adrenal cortex produces three main
  • mineralocorticoid aldosterone. It is a protein which is only expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex and is primarily regulated by the renin angiotensin
  • hyperaldosteronism reflecting excess production of aldosterone by adrenal zona glomerulosa Bilateral micronodular hyperplasia is more common than unilateral
  • Steroid 11β - hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata. Named officially the cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial