ⓘ Hypertensive retinopathy

                                     

ⓘ Hypertensive retinopathy

Most patients with hypertensive retinopathy have no symptoms. However, some may report decreased or blurred vision, and headaches.

Signs of damage to the retina caused by hypertension include:

  • Strongly modulated blood flow pulse in central and branch arteries can result from hypertension. Microangiography by laser Doppler imaging may reveal altered hemodynamics non-invasively.
  • Arteriolar changes, such as generalized arteriolar narrowing, focal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous nicking, changes in the arteriolar wall arteriosclerosis and abnormalities at points where arterioles and venules cross. Manifestations of these changes include Copper wire arterioles where the central light reflex occupies most of the width of the arteriole and Silver wire arterioles where the central light reflex occupies all of the width of the arteriole, and "arterio-venular AV nicking" or "AV nipping", due to venous constriction and banking.
  • Advanced retinopathy lesions, such as microaneurysms, blot hemorrhages and / or flame hemorrhages, ischemic changes e.g. "cotton wool spots", hard exudates and in severe cases swelling of the optic disc optic disc edema, a ring of exudates around the retina called a "macular star" and visual acuity loss, typically due to macular involvement.

Mild signs of hypertensive retinopathy can be seen quite frequently in normal people, 3-14% of adult individuals aged ≥40 years, even without hypertension. Hypertensive retinopathy is generally considered a diagnostic symptom of a hypertensive crisis, although this is not always present.

                                     
  • non - proliferative damage include hypertensive retinopathy retinopathy of prematurity, radiation retinopathy solar retinopathy and retinopathy associated with sickle
  • with hypertensive urgency. 16 of patients presenting with hypertensive emergency can have no known history of hypertension. Hypertensive retinopathy Hypertensive
  • with advanced hypertensive retinopathy They are named after Anton Elschnig. Elschnig spots are commonly caused by acute hypertensive events of the choroidal
  • retinal venules can be seen on fundoscopy occurring in patients with hypertensive retinopathy Arteriosclerosis causes shortening or lengthening of arterioles
  • most commonly seen in eye disease caused by high blood pressure hypertensive retinopathy It is thought that, since the arteriole and venule share a common
  • population. Other symptoms accompanying a hypertensive crisis may include visual deterioration due to retinopathy breathlessness due to heart failure, or
  • Diabetic retinopathy also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus. It is
  • Anaemia thrombocytopenia Collagen vascular disease Leukemia Hypertensive retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy Pre - eclampsia Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV Extreme
  • renal function. Eye - evidence upon fundoscopic examination of hypertensive retinopathy Kidney - poor urine output less than 0 5mL kg low GFR. Skin
  • blood pressure. These stages of hypertensive retinopathy however, may not be sequential. For example, signs of retinopathy that reflect the exudative stage
  • Purtscher s retinopathy is a disease where part of the eye retina is damaged. Usually associated with severe head injuries, it may also occur with other