ⓘ List of French artistic movements

                                     

ⓘ List of French artistic movements

The following is a chronological list of artistic movements or periods in France indicating artists who are sometimes associated or grouped with those movements. See also European art history, Art history and History of Painting and Art movement.

                                     

1. School of Fontainebleau

The Ecole de Fontainebleau was two periods of artistic production during the Renaissance centered on the Chateau of Fontainebleau.

First School from 1531

  • Rosso Fiorentino Giovanni Battista di Jacopo de Rossi 1494–1540 Italian
  • Francesco Primaticcio c.1505–1570 Italian
  • Niccolo dellAbbate c.1509–1571

Second School from 1590s

  • Toussaint Dubreuil c.1561–1602
  • Ambroise Dubois c.1542–1614 Flemish born
  • Martin Freminet 1567–1619
                                     

2. Classicism

See as well Louis XIV of France, Palace of Versailles, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Gobelins, Louis Le Vau, Jules Hardouin Mansart, Baroque

  • Charles Le Brun 1619–1690
  • Pierre Mignard 1612–1695
  • Andre Le Notre 1613–1700 Landscape architect
  • Charles de la Fosse 1636–1716
  • Hyacinthe Rigaud 1659–1743
  • Nicolas de Largilliere 1656–1746
  • Antoine Coypel 1661–1722
  • Antoine Coysevox 1640–1720
  • François Girardon 1628–1715
  • Pierre Paul Puget 1620–1694
                                     

3. Rococo

The expression "Rococo" is used for much European art throughout the 18th century, including works by the Italians Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Canaletto and Francesco Guardi and the English Thomas Gainsborough, Joshua Reynolds and the furnituremaker Thomas Chippendale. Compared with the 17th century Baroque, Rococo implies a lighter and more playful decorative art; the nude female is frequently featured; chinoiserie is also fashionable. Some of the artists that are most often grouped as "Rococo" are listed below. See as well Regence, Louis XV of France, Palace of Versailles.

  • Charles Joseph Natoire 1700–1777 painter
  • Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin 1699–1779 painter
  • Antoine Watteau 1684–1721 painter
  • Jean-Baptiste François Pater 1695–1736 painter
  • Jean-Honore Fragonard 1732–1806 painter
  • Jean-Marc Nattier 1685–1766 painter
  • François Boucher 1703–1770 painter, engraver
  • Nicolas Lancret 1690–1743 painter
  • Jean-Baptiste Oudry 1686–1755 painter


                                     

4. Romanticism

Most of the early 19th-century artists given in the chronological list above have been at some time grouped together under the rubric of "romanticism", including the "realists" as the Barbizon school and the "naturalists". Some of the most important are listed here. See also French Revolution, Napoleon I of France, Victor Hugo, orientalism.

  • Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson 1767–1824
  • Eugene Delacroix 1798–1863
  • Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot 1796–1875
  • Theodore Rousseau 1812–1867
  • Theodore Gericault 1791–1824
  • Jean-François Millet 1814–1875
  • Antoine-Jean Gros 1771–1835
  • Theodore Chasseriau 1819–1856
  • Gustave Dore 1832–1883
  • Pierre Narcisse Guerin 1771–1833
                                     

5. LArt-Pompier

See also Academic art, Napoleon III of France, Second Empire. The expression pompier is pejorative and means pompous ; it refers to Academic painters in the mid to late 19th century.

  • William-Adolphe Bouguereau 1825–1905
  • Jean-Leon Gerome 1824–1904
  • Alexandre Cabanel 1823–1889
                                     

6. Barbizon School

The Ecole de Barbizon was a landscape and outdoor art movement which preceded Impressionism. The city is near the forest of Fontainebleau. Theodore Rousseau came to the region in 1848 and he subsequently attracted other artists.

  • Narcisse-Virgile Diaz de la Peña 1808–1878 Born in Spain
  • Constant Troyon 1810–1865
  • Theodore Rousseau 1812–1867
  • Felix Ziem 1821–1911
  • Jean-François Millet 1814–1875
  • Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot 1796–1875
  • Charles-François Daubigny 1817–1878
  • Jules Dupre 1811–1889


                                     

7. Naturalism

The term is much criticised, but implies a frank and unidealized portrayal of real life, especially of the working classes and agricultural workers in contrast to Jean-François Millets idealized paintings of field workers, and locales such as factories, mines and popular cafes. See also the writers Emile Zola, Gustave Flaubert and Guy de Maupassant.

  • Gustave Courbet 1819–1877
  • Jules Bastien-Lepage 1848–1884
  • Theodule Ribot 1824–1891
  • Ignace François Bonhomme 1809–1881
                                     

8. Impressionism

From around 1872.

  • Camille Pissarro 1830–1903
  • Edgar Degas 1834–1917
  • Edouard Manet 1832–1883 considered a precursor
  • Claude Monet 1840–1926 started the Impressionism era in France
  • Henri Fantin-Latour 1836–1904
  • Gustave Caillebotte 1848–1894
  • Eugene Boudin 1824–1898
  • Pierre-Auguste Renoir 1841–1919
  • Berthe Morisot 1841–1895
                                     

9. Post-Impressionism

The term is most often associated with the following artists, though it could equally apply to most of the movements leading up to cubism.

  • Vincent van Gogh 1853–1890 Dutch, worked in France
  • Georges-Pierre Seurat 1859–1891 - see also Pointillism
  • Henri Rousseau "le Douanier" 1844–1910
  • Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 1864–1901
  • Paul Gauguin 1848–1903
  • Paul Cezanne 1839–1906
                                     

10. Pont-Aven School

Pont-Aven is a town on the coast of Brittany frequented by artists in the late 19th century 1886–1888.

  • Paul Gauguin 1848–1903
  • Paul Serusier 1865–1927
  • Emile Bernard 1868–1941
                                     

11. Symbolism

See also Stephane Mallarme, Paul Verlaine, Huysmans, Symbolist painters.

  • Pierre Puvis de Chavannes 1824–1898
  • Gustave Moreau 1826–1898
  • Odilon Redon 1840–1916
                                     

12. Les Nabis

The expression comes from the Hebrew word for "prophets"; from around 1888.

  • Paul Serusier 1865–1927
  • Pierre Bonnard 1867–1947
  • Georges Lacombe 1868–1916
  • Maurice Denis 1870–1943
  • Edouard Jean Vuillard 1868–1940
  • Paul Ranson 1864–1909
  • Felix Vallotton 1865–1925
  • Henri-Charles Manguin 1874–1943
  • Ker Xavier Roussel 1867–1944
  • Aristide Maillol 1861–1944
  • Paul Signac 1863–1935


                                     

13. Fauvism

Fauvism, or Les Fauves means "wild beasts". They first appeared at the salon of Autumn 1905–1908.

  • Maurice de Vlaminck 1876–1958
  • Andre Derain 1880–1954
  • Georges Rouault 1871–1958
  • Henri Matisse 1869–1954
                                     

14. Cubism

"Cezanne period" 1907–1909; "Analytic period" 1909–1912; "Synthetic period" 1913–1914.

  • Juan Gris 1887–1927 Spanish
  • Georges Braque 1882–1963
  • Pablo Picasso 1881–1973 Spanish
  • Jacques Lipchitz 1891–1973 born in Poland
  • Fernand Leger 1881–1955
  • Jean Metzinger 1883–1937
  • Louis Marcoussis Louis Markus 1883–1941 Born in Poland
                                     

15. Orphism or the Puteaux Group

Sometimes called "Cubic Orphism"; compare to the British Vorticism.

  • Jean Metzinger 1883–1956
  • Roger de La Fresnaye 1885–1925
  • Guillaume Apollinaire 1880–1918 Italian born poet and art critic, lived in France
  • Frantisek Kupka 1871–1957 Czech, worked in France
  • Fernand Leger 1881–1955
  • Jacques Villon 1875–1963
  • Francis Picabia 1879–1953
  • Louis Marcoussis 1878–1941 Polish, worked in France
  • Albert Gleizes 1881–1952
  • Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes 1884–1974
  • Raymond Duchamp-Villon 1876–1918
  • Robert Delaunay 1885–1941
  • Henri Le Fauconnier 1881–1946
  • Marcel Duchamp 1887–1968
                                     

16. Incoherents

Founded in 1882, its satirical irreverence anticipated many of the art techniques and attitudes later associated with avant-garde and anti-art.

  • Jules Levy 1857–1935
  • Alphonse Allais 1854 – 1905
  • Emile Cohl 1857–1938
  • Sapeck Eugene Bataille French 1854–1891
  • Paul Bilhaud
                                     

17. Surrealism

  • Yves Tanguy 1900–1955
  • Fernand Leger 1881–1955
  • Marcel Duchamp 1887–1968
  • Rene Magritte 1898–1967 Belgian
  • Andre Masson 1896–1987
  • Hans Bellmer 1902–1975
  • Salvador Dali 1904–1989 Catalan, worked in Paris around 1927
  • Rene Iche 1897–1954
  • Joan Miro 1893–1983 Spanish, worked in Paris in the 1920s
  • Jean Hans Arp 1886–1966
  • Max Ernst 1891–1976
  • Marc Chagall 1887–1985
  • Paul Delvaux 1897–1954 Belgian
                                     

18. School of Paris

The Ecole de Paris starts from around 1925.

  • Constantin Brancuși 1876–1957 French, born in Romania
  • Raoul Dufy 1877–1953
  • Amedeo Modigliani 1884–1920 Italian, worked in Paris
  • Marc Chagall 1887–1985 French, born in Belarus
  • Chaïm Soutine 1894–1943 French, born in Lithuania
                                     

19. Tachism or Lart informel

See also Abstract Expressionism, Cobra group, Lyrical Abstraction.

  • Michel Tapie
  • Georges Mathieu
  • Jean Fautrier 1898–1964
  • Wols Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze 1913–1951 German, worked in France
  • Jean Dubuffet 1901–1985
                                     

20. Situationist International

Though not an art movement per se, the Situationists did produce much detournement of art. See also May 1968 for work from the atelier populaire.

  • Guy Debord
                                     

21. Fluxus

Founded in 1962, this international art movement stressed play, active participation, and unusual materials.

  • Ben Vautier called "Ben" dates?
  • Robert Filliou 1926–1987
                                     

22. Nouveau Realisme

Founded in 1960, this movement stressed the importance of the real and the modern consumer object and was similar to the Pop art movement in New York.

  • Pierre Restany
  • Daniel Spoerri
  • Jacques de la Villegle
  • Gerard Deschamps
  • Arman
  • Jean Tinguely
  • François Dufrêne
  • Mimmo Rotella
  • Raymond Hains
  • Yves Klein
  • Niki de Saint Phalle
  • Martial Raysse
  • Cesar
                                     
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