ⓘ Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period
Jerusalem during the Second Temple period describes the history of the city from the return to Zion under Cyrus the Great to the 70 CE siege of Jerusalem by Titus during the First Jewish–Roman War, which saw both region and city change hands several times. It was the center of religious life for all Jews, even those who lived in the diaspora prayed towards Jerusalem on a daily basis and made pilgrimages during religious festivals. The Pharisees of Second Temple Judaism developed into the Tannaim and Judaisms post-Exilic religious identity as it continues today, and the Hebrew Bible was perhaps canonized, although exactly when this occurred remains disputed. It was also in Jerusalem during the later stages of this period that Christianity was born.
Over 600 years of existence of the Second Temple can be divided into several periods, each with its own political and social characteristics. The physical development of the city largely depends on changes in the characteristics of each era, while simultaneously affecting these periods. The population of the city is characterized by social stratification, both economic and religious, which grew more pronounced over many years. There are in the city, for example, a clear distinction between the rich and cosmopolitan elite and the wider population wishing less of an impact on the ways the United Nations from the outside world. Social strata and included different religious worldviews, each with its different emphasis: some rely on priests in the temple while most were led to traditional non-priestly families, highlighting the world of Torah study and development of law over the formal hierarchy established in the temple.
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