ⓘ P

                                     

ⓘ P

In English orthography and most other European languages, ⟨p⟩ represents the sound /p/.

A common digraph in English is ⟨ph⟩, which represents the sound, and can be used to transliterate ⟨φ⟩ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph ⟨pf⟩ is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/.

Most English words beginning with ⟨p⟩ are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic; these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p. Native English cognates of such words often start with ⟨f⟩, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimms law; a native English word with initial /p/ would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial *b, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed.

However, native English words with non-initial ⟨p⟩ are quite common; such words can come from either Kluges law or the consonant cluster /sp/ PIE *p has been preserved after s.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, /p/ is used to represent the voiceless bilabial plosive.

                                     

1.1. Related characters Ancestors, descendants and siblings

The Latin letter P represents the same sound as the Greek letter Pi, but it looks like the Greek letter Rho.

  • : Old Italic and Old Latin P, which derives from Greek Pi, and is the ancestor of modern Latin P. The Roman P had this form on coins and inscriptions until the reign of Claudius, ca. 50 AD See also Claudian letters.
  • П п: Cyrillic letter Pe, which also derives from Pi
  • Π π: Greek letter Pi
  • : Semitic letter Pe, from which the following symbols originally derive
  • : Gothic letter pertra/pairþa, which derives from Greek Pi
  • Պ պ: Armenian letter Pe
  • Ⲡ ⲡ: Coptic letter Pi
  • U+1D56 ᵖ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL P
  • P with diacritics: ṕ p ᵽ ƥ ᵱ ᶈ
  • Uralic Phonetic Alphabet-specific symbols related to P
  • U+1D18 ᴘ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL P
  • U+1D3E ᴾ MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL P
  • ₚ: Subscript small p was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902
                                     

1.2. Related characters Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols

  • ꟼ: Reversed P was used in ancient Roman texts to stand for puella girl
  • ₱: Philippine peso sign
  • ♇: Pluto symbol
  • ℘: script letter P, see Weierstrass p
  • ℗: sound recording copyright symbol
  • Ꝑ ꝑ, Ꝓ ꝓ, Ꝕ, ꝕ: Various forms of P were used for medieval scribal abbreviations