Motivation is the experience of desire or aversion…You want something, or want to avoid or escape something. As such, motivation has both an objective side – a goal or thing you aspire to – and an internal or subjective aspect: it is you that wants the thing. At minimum, motivation requires the biological substrate for physical sensations of pleasure and pain. Animals can thus want or disdain specific objects based on sense perception and experience. But motivation does not stop there. The capacity to form concepts and to reason allows humans can go beyond this minimum state, with a much greater possible range of desires and aversions. This much greater range is supported by the ability to choose ones own goals and values, combined with time horizons for value achievement that can encompass years, decades or longer, and the ability to re-experience past events. Some models treat as important the distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and motivation is an important topic in work, organizational psychology, administrative organization, and management as well as education. The definition of motivation as experienced desires and aversions highlights the association of motivation with emotion. Emotions are automatic appraisals based on subconsciously stored values and beliefs about the object. To the extent that distinct emotions relate to specific subconscious appraisals, motivation theory involves specifying content theories – values that people find motivating – along with mechanisms by which they might attain these values. Changing motivation – either ones own or that of others is another focus of motivation research, for instance altering how you choose to act on your emotions, or re-programming them by modifying ones beliefs and values.