ⓘ Category:Vowels

Advanced and retracted tongue root

In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially in Western and Eastern Africa but also in Kazakh and Mongolian. ATR vs RTR used to be suggested to be the basis for the distinction between tense and lax vowels in European languages such as German, but that no longer seems tenable.

Cardinal vowels

Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages. For instance, the vowel of the English word "feet" can be described with reference to cardinal vowel 1, which is the cardinal vowel closest to it. It is often stated that to be able to use the cardinal vowel system effectively one must undergo training with an expert phonetician, working both on the recognition and the production of the vowels. Daniel Jones wrote "The values of cardinal vowels cannot be learnt from written descriptions; they should be learnt by oral instruction from a ...

Diaeresis (prosody)

In poetic meter, diaeresis has two meanings: the separate pronunciation of the two vowels in a diphthong for the sake of meter, and a division between feet that corresponds to the division between words. Synaeresis, the pronunciation of two vowels as a diphthong or as a long vowel, is the opposite of the first definition.

English words without vowels

English orthography typically represents vowel sounds with the five conventional vowel letters ⟨a, e, i, o, u⟩, as well as ⟨y⟩, which may also be a consonant depending on context. However, outside of abbreviations, there are a handful of words in English that do not have vowels, either because the vowel sounds are not written with vowel letters or because the words themselves are pronounced without vowel sounds.

Inherent vowel

An inherent vowel is part of an abugida script. It is a vowel sound which is used with each unmarked or basic consonant symbol. For example, if the Latin alphabet used i as an inherent vowel, we might write "Wikipedia" as "Wkpedia". There are many known abugida scripts, including most of the Brahmic scripts and Kharosthi, the cursive Meroitic script, which developed in Nubia today in Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan, and the Geez script. Many of them are still used today. Old Persian cuneiform also uses a device similar to an inherent vowel, though only with a subset of its consonants, so ...


A monophthong is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation. The monophthongs can be contrasted with diphthongs, where the vowel quality changes within the same syllable, and hiatus, where two vowels are next to each other in different syllables. A vowel sound whose quality does not change over the duration of the vowel is called a pure vowel.


ⓘ Vowels

  • A vowel is a syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the
  • Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages. For instance, the vowel of the English word feet
  • languages do not distinguish vowel length phonemically. Those that do usually distinguish between short vowels and long vowels A very few languages distinguish
  • language, a high vowel can be any vowel that is more close than a mid vowel That is, close - mid vowels near - close vowels and close vowels can all be considered
  • be any vowel that is more open than a mid vowel That is, open - mid vowels near - open vowels and open vowels can all be considered low vowels The open
  • essentially a type of front vowel no language is known to contrast front and near - front vowels based on backness alone. Rounded front vowels are typically centralized
  • consonant. Back vowels are sometimes also called dark vowels because they are perceived as sounding darker than the front vowels Near - back vowels are essentially
  • reduced vowels in transcription. Some English dictionaries mark full vowels for secondary stress, so that e.g. ˌɪ is a full unstressed vowel while ɪ
  • A vowel diagram or vowel chart is a schematic arrangement of the vowels Depending on the particular language being discussed, it can take the form of

Raised vowel

A raised vowel is a vowel sound in which the body of the tongue is raised toward the dorsum. The most raised cardinal vowels are. Lifted and stretched vowels are traditional, but articulatorily-wide category of back vowels, but they also cover most of the Central vowels.


Retracted vowel

A retracted vowel is a vowel sound in which the body or root of the tongue is pulled back into the pharynx. The most retracted cardinal vowels are. Stretched vowels and the vowels are set to traditional, but inaccurate articulatorily, the category of back vowels.