ⓘ Migraine


ⓘ Migraine

A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe. Typically, the headaches affect one half of the head, are pulsating in nature, and last from a few hours to 3 days. Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell. The pain is generally made worse by physical activity. Up to one-third of people affected have an aura: typically a short period of visual disturbance that signals that the headache will soon occur. Occasionally, an aura can occur with little or no headache following it.

Migraines are believed to be due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. About two-thirds of cases run in families. Changing hormone levels may also play a role, as migraines affect slightly more boys than girls before puberty and in two to three times more women than men. The risk of migraines usually decreases during pregnancy and after menopause. The underlying mechanisms are not known. They, however, believed to the nerves and blood vessels of the brain.

Initial recommended treatment with simple painkillers, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen for a headache, medication for nausea and avoid triggers. Certain medications, such as triptone or ergotamines may be used in those for whom simple analgesics are not effective. Caffeine can be added to the above. A number of drugs used to prevent attacks, including metoprolol, valproate and topiramate.

Worldwide approximately 15% of people suffer from migraines. It most often begins in puberty and is worse during middle age. In 2016, this is one of the most common causes of disability. An early description in accordance with migraines is contained in the Papyrus of Ebers, written around 1500 BC In Ancient Egypt. The word "migraine" comes from the Greek hemikrania ἡμικρανία, "pain on one side of the head", from ἡμι - Hemi-, "half", and κρανίον kranion "skull".

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