ⓘ List of domesticated animals

Poultry

Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers. These birds are most typically members of the superorder Galloanserae, especially the order Galliformes. Poultry also includes other birds that are killed for their meat, such as the young of pigeons known as squabs but does not include similar wild birds hunted for sport or food and known as game. The word "poultry" comes from the French/Norman word poule, itself derived from the Latin word pullus, which means small animal. The domestication of poultry took place several thousand years ago. This ma ...

Horse

The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Eohippus, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is ...

Dog

The domestic dog is a member of the genus Canis, which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not closely related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct. The dog was the first species to be domesticated, and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes. Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior ...

Cat

The cat is a small carnivorous mammal. It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae and often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from wild members of the family. The cat is either a house cat, a farm cat or a feral cat ; the latter ranges freely and avoids human contact. Domestic cats are valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt pests such as rodents. About 60 cat breeds are recognized by various cat registries. The cat is similar in anatomy to the other felid species, has a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp teeth and retractabl ...

                                     

ⓘ List of domesticated animals

This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation. This includes species which are semi-domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or commonly wild-caught, at least occasionally captive-bred, and tameable. In order to be considered fully domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic, behavioural and morphological changes from their wild ancestors, while others have changed very little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding. A number of factors determine how quickly any changes may occur in a species, but there is not always a desire to improve a species from its wild form. Domestication is a gradual process, so there is no precise moment in the history of a given species when it can be considered to have become fully domesticated.

Archaeozoology has identified three classes of animal domesticates:

  • Beasts of burden, pack animals etc.
  • Pets
  • Farm animals; livestock

To sort the tables chronologically by date of domestication, refresh your browser window, as clicking the Date column heading will mix CE and BCE dates.

                                     

1. Tame and partially domesticated animals

Due to the somewhat unclear outlines of what precisely constitutes domestication, there are some species that may or may not be fully domesticated. There are also species that are extensively used or kept as pets by humans, but are not significantly altered from wild-type animals. Most animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild animals by their extensive interactions with humans. Many could not be released into the wild, or are in some way dependent on humans.

                                     

2. Taxonomical groupings

The categories used in Taxon group column are:

  • 2a: Anseriformes, 2b: Galliformes, 2c: Columbiformes, 2d: Passeriformes, 2e: Psittaciformes, 2f: Other birds
  • 5a: Cyprinidae, 5b: Other fish
  • 3a: Serpentes, 3b: Lacertilia, 3c: Other reptiles
  • 1a: Artiodactyla except Bovidae, 1b: Bovidae, 1c: Carnivora, 1d: Rodentia, 1e: Other mammals
  • 6a: Hymenoptera, 6b: Other insects, 6c: Other arthropods
  • 4a: Anura, 4b: Other amphibians