ⓘ Stakeholder management


ⓘ Stakeholder management

Stakeholder management is a critical component to the successful delivery of any project, programme or activity. A stakeholder is any individual, group or organization that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a programme.

In a nutshell, the stakeholder management comprises four steps:

  • Identify, recognize and acknowledge stakeholder;
  • Influencing and engaging stakeholder
  • Determine their influence and interest;
  • Establish communication management plan

1. Stakeholder identification

Stakeholders may be both organizations and people, ultimately you must communicate with people. Make sure that you identify the correct individual stakeholders within a stakeholder organization.

  • May have the power either to block or advance.
  • People and organizations that are affected by work.
  • May be interested, others may not care.

1.1. Stakeholder identification Customers

Within the field of marketing, it is believed that customers are one of the most important stakeholders for managing its long-term value, with a firms major objective being the management of customer satisfaction.


1.2. Stakeholder identification Key stakeholders

You now need to know more about your key stakeholders. You need to know how they are likely to feel about and react to your project. You also need to know how best to engage them in your project and how best to communicate with them. Key questions that can help you understand your stakeholders are:

  • Who else might be influenced by their opinions? Do these people become stakeholders in their own right?
  • How do they want to receive information from you? What is the best way of communicating your message to them?
  • What information do they want from you?
  • If you dont think you will be able to win them around, how will you manage their opposition?
  • What motivates them most of all?
  • What is their current opinion of your work? Is it based on good information?
  • If they are not likely to be positive, what will win them around to support your project?
  • Who influences their opinions generally, and who influences their opinion of you? Do some of these influencers therefore become important stakeholders in their own right?
  • What financial or emotional interest do they have in the outcome of your work? Is it positive or negative?


1.3. Stakeholder identification Organizational stakeholders

It is well acknowledged that any given organization will have multiple stakeholders including, but not limited to, customers, shareholders, employees, suppliers, and so forth.


2. Stakeholder prioritization

Stakeholders may be mapped out on a Power/Interest Grid, and classified by their power and interest. There are other tools to map out stakeholders and how to influence them.

For example, your boss is likely to have high power and influence over your projects and high interest. Your family may have high interest, but are unlikely to have power over it.

Position on the grid may show actions:

  • High power, interested people: these are the people you must fully engage and make the greatest efforts to satisfy.
  • Low power, less interested people: again, monitor these people, but do not bore them with excessive communication.
  • High power, less interested people: put enough work in with these people to keep them satisfied, but not so much that they become bored with your message.
  • Low power, interested people: keep these people adequately informed, and talk to them to ensure that no major issues are arising. These people can often be very helpful with the detail of your project.

3. Stakeholder engagement

  • Understand what is success: Explore the value of the project to the stakeholder.
  • Managing risk: Stakeholders can be treated as risk and opportunities that have probabilities and impact.
  • Consult, early and often: To get the useful information and ideas, ask questions.
  • Take responsibility: Project governance is the key of project success
  • Remember, they are human: Operate with an awareness of human feelings.
  • Simple but not easy: Show your care. Be empathetic. Listen to the stakeholders.
  • Compromise: Compromise across a set of stakeholders diverging priorities.
  • Plan it: Time investment and careful planning against it, has a significant payoff.
  • Communicate: To ensure intended message is understood and the desired response achieved.
  • Relationship: Try to engender trust with the stakeholders.


Stakeholder management creates positive relationships with stakeholders through the appropriate management of their expectations and agreed objectives. Stakeholder management is a process and control that must be planned and guided by underlying principles. Stakeholder management within businesses, organizations, or projects prepares a strategy using information or intelligence gathered during the following common processes.

With a clear understanding of your Stakeholders, engaging and communicating can be achieved through a variety of channels based upon who the stakeholder is.

  • Low power, interested people: Keep informed. Best channels: In-Person, Video, Email Updates
  • High power, less interested people: Keep satisfied. Best channels: Steering Committee, Board Meeting Updates
  • High power, interested people: Manage closely. Best channels: Issue, Change Logs, Status Meetings
  • Low power, less interested people: Monitor. Best channels: Send Email, Status Reports