ⓘ List of cultural icons of England


ⓘ List of cultural icons of England

This list of cultural icons of England is a list of people and things from any period which are independently considered to be cultural icons characteristic of England.


1. Animals

  • Norfolk turkey.
  • Suffolk Punch horse.
  • Old English sheepdog.
  • Dartmoor pony.
  • New Forest Pony.
  • Exmoor pony.
  • British bulldog
  • Hereford cattle.
  • Gloucester Old Spot pig.

2. Art

  • Sir Joshua Reynolds 1723–1792.
  • Henry Moore 1898–1986.
  • Nicholas Hilliard c. 1547–1619.
  • Joseph Wright of Derby 1734–1797.
  • James Gillray 1756/1757-1815.
  • David Hockney b. 1937.
  • Thomas Gainsborough 1727–1788.
  • Sir James Thornhill 1675/76-1734.
  • William Hogarth 1697–1764.
  • J. M. W. Turner 1775–1851.
  • John Constable 1776–1837; in particular, The Hay Wain.
  • Sir Peter Blake b. 1932.
  • William Blake 1757–1827.
  • L. S. Lowry 1887–1976.
  • Sir Thomas Lawrence 1769–1830.
  • George Cruikshank 1792–1878.

3. Books and documents

  • The Oxford English Dictionary begun 1857; first edition completed 1928.
  • The Domesday Book completed 1086.
  • On the Origin of Species 1859 by Charles Darwin.
  • Pride and Prejudice 1813 by Jane Austen.
  • Magna Carta agreed by King John on 15 June 1215.
  • The Bill of Rights 1689 passed on 16 December 1689.
  • The works of Beatrix Potter 1866–1943.
  • William Shakespeares First Folio published posthumously in 1623.
  • The Lord of the Rings begun 1937; completed 1949, by J. R. R. Tolkien.
  • The novels of Charles Dickens 1812–1870.
  • Mrs Beetons Book of Household Management 1861, edited by Isabella Beeton.
  • The King James Bible begun 1604; completed 1611.
  • The Lindisfarne Gospels produced c. 700 A.D., attributed to Eadfrith of Lindisfarne.
  • Our Island Story 1905 by H. E. Marshall.
  • The Canterbury Tales produced between c. 1386 and 1400 by Geoffrey Chaucer.


4. Buildings and structures

  • The Abbey Road zebra crossing, famous for its association with the Beatles 1969 album Abbey Road.
  • Buckingham Palace, London residence of the British monarch since 1837.
  • Canterbury Cathedral founded 597; completely rebuilt 1070–1077; east end enlarged early 12th century, and largely rebuilt in Gothic style following a fire in 1174.
  • Globe Theatre (the modern reconstruction, named "Shakespeares Globe", opened in 1997 approximately 750 feet and took its name from the sites shape which from the air resembled a tricorn hat. Constructed in the mid-1960s, it was demolished in 2004. It was home to one of the first Virgin Megastores and housed the largest Laser Quest arena in Europe.
  • EMIs Old Vinyl Factory in Hayes, Middlesex, where records by The Beatles and other EMI artists were manufactured in the 1960s and after.
  • The Angel of the North, contemporary sculpture by Sir Antony Gormley, located near Gateshead in Tyne and Wear completed 1998.
  • Durham Cathedral, formally the Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham present cathedral founded 1093.
  • Clifton Suspension Bridge, a suspension bridge spanning the Avon Gorge and the River Avon, in Bristol based on an earlier design by Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
  • Big Ben the nickname for the bell; the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament was renamed the Elizabeth Tower in 2012.
  • Blackpool Tower opened 14 May 1894.

5. Clothing

  • The tailless dinner jacket suit, the earliest recorded example of which was ordered by the Prince of Wales later Edward VII from Savile Row tailors Henry Poole & Co.
  • Top hat, said to have caused a riot when John Hetherington first wore one in public on 15 January 1797.
  • Deerstalker hat, popularly associated with representations of fictional private investigator Sherlock Holmes.
  • Bowler hat, created 1849 for soldier and politician Edward Coke.
  • Frock coat, popularised by Prince Albert, consort to Queen Victoria.
  • Ben Sherman clothing brand; typically associated with mods.
  • Miniskirt, so-called since the 1960s, when it became associated with "Swinging London."
  • Ruff, formal neck-wear from the mid-sixteenth century to the mid-seventeenth century, following Elizabeth Is New Years gift to her ladies in 1565.
  • Flat cap, dating back to the 14th century in Northern England.
  • Pith helmet, popular from the 1870s with military personnel in the Tropics.
  • R. Griggss Dr. Martens AirWair boot; associated with, among others, skinheads and punks.
  • Trench coat, the invention of which is claimed by both Burberry and Aquascutum.
  • Blazer, originated with the red blazers of the Lady Margaret Boat Club 1825, the rowing club of St. Johns College, Cambridge.
  • Smock-frock, dating back to the early 18th century in the Midlands and Southern England.

6. Customs and traditions

  • Maypole dancing, found historically in England and in areas of Wales and Scotland under English influence.
  • Coconut shy, traditional funfair and fête game consisting of throwing wooden balls at a row of coconuts balanced on posts; may have originated at the annual Pleasure Fair in Kingston, Surrey, 1867; probably derives from the game of Aunt Sally.
  • Britannia Coconut Dancers, a troupe of Lancastrian clog dancers who perform every Easter in Bacup, dancing 7 miles 11 km across the town.
  • Beating the bounds, ancient custom still observed in some English parishes; members of a community walk the boundaries of the parish, usually led by church officials, to share the knowledge of where they lay, and to pray for protection and blessings for the lands.
  • Coopers Hill Cheese-Rolling and Wake, annual event held on the Spring Bank Holiday at Brockworth, near Gloucester.
  • Birdman Rally, flying; format originated in Selsey, West Sussex, 1971.
  • Gurning, rural English tradition of assuming a distorted facial expression.
  • London Marathon, first run 29 March 1981.
  • Cotswold Olimpick Games, probably began 1622.
  • International Birdman, flying competitions held in Bognor Regis and Worthing, West Sussex.
  • Aunt Sally, traditional English game in which players throw sticks or battens at a model of an old womans head, usually played in pub gardens and fairgrounds.
  • Wellie wanging, game originating from Upperthong, Holmfirth; competitors are required to hurl a Wellington boot as far as possible within boundary lines.
  • Morris dancing, earliest known and surviving English written mention dated to 1448.
  • Dogging (Sexual slang, Dogging is a British English slang term for engaging in sexual acts in a public or semi-public place or watching others doing so.
  • Shin-kicking: a combat sport that originated in England in the early 17th century; it involves two contestants attempting to kick each other on the shin to force their opponent to the ground.
  • Royal Shrovetide Football, played annually in Ashbourne, Derbyshire since c. 1667.
  • Well dressing, summer custom practised in rural England in which wells, springs or other water sources are decorated with designs created from flower petals; most closely associated with the Peak District of Derbyshire and Staffordshire.
  • Royal Maundy; small silver coins known as "Maundy money" ceremonially distributed as symbolic alms to elderly recipients by the Monarch or a royal official at a religious service in the Church of England, held on Maundy Thursday, the day before Good Friday.
  • Nottingham Goose Fair, dates back more than 700 years.


7. Education

  • Winchester College, established by William of Wykeham in 1382.
  • Rugby School, founded in 1567.
  • Eton College, founded in 1440.
  • Grammar schools: selective tier of Englands Tripartite System of state-funded secondary education between 1945 and the 1970s.
  • Roedean School, founded in 1885.
  • Charterhouse School, founded by Thomas Sutton in 1611.
  • Oxford University, evidence of teaching since 1096.
  • Cambridge University, founded in 1209.
  • Harrow School, founded in 1572.

8. Emblems

  • Saint George, patron saint of England by the 14th century.
  • The Rose is the national flower of England, a usage dating back to the English civil wars of the 15th century.
  • English Oak, consequent upon the future King Charles II hiding from his Parliamentarian pursuers in the oak tree at Boscobel House, in 1650 during the English Civil War.
  • The Lion/Lion passant; evidence of a seal bearing two lions passant used by the future King John during the lifetime of his father, Henry II.
  • John Bull, a national personification of the United Kingdom in general and England in particular, especially in political cartoons and similar graphic works; created by Dr John Arbuthnot and Alexander Pope in 1712.
  • Flag of St George, dating from the Middle Ages; used as a component in the design of the Union Flag in 1606.

9. Festivals

  • May Day: usually celebrated on 1 May.
  • Saint Georges Day: 23 April, the traditionally accepted date of Saint Georges death in 303 AD.
  • Glastonbury Festival: performing arts festival that takes place near Pilton, Somerset; inaugurated in 1970.
  • Whitsun: the festival of Pentecost, the seventh Sunday after Easter, which commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Christs disciples Acts of the Apostles, Chapter 2.

10. Fictional characters

  • Rupert Bear, comic strip bear created in 1920 by Mary Tourtel and popularised from 1935 by Alfred Bestall.
  • Biggles, nickname of pilot and adventurer James Bigglesworth, created in 1932 by Captain W. E. Johns.
  • Robin Hood, heroic outlaw of English folklore, dating from the 13th century.
  • Dixon of Dock Green, typical "bobby" on the beat, first appeared in The Blue Lamp 1949.
  • Falstaff, fat, boastful knight who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare.
  • Lord Snooty, comic strip character created in 1938 and drawn mostly by Dudley D. Watkins.
  • Bridget Jones created by Helen Fielding in 1995.
  • Thomas the Tank Engine created by Wilbert Awdry in 1942.
  • Alf Garnett, East End patriarch first seen in sitcom Till Death Us Do Part, created in 1965 by Johnny Speight.
  • Paddington Bear, created by Michael Bond b. 1926 in 1958.
  • Harry Potter created by J.K. Rowling in 1997.
  • Winnie-the-Pooh, created by A. A. Milne in 1926.
  • Sooty, bear created by Harry Corbett in 1948.
  • Noddy, little wooden puppet created in 1949 by Enid Blyton.
  • James Bond, British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by Ian Fleming.
  • Sherlock Holmes, private detective created in 1887 by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.


11. Folk tales

  • Dick Whittington and His Cat: English folklore surrounding the real-life Richard Whittington c. 1354–1423; earliest written form: 1604–5.
  • Goldilocks and the Three Bears: first recorded in narrative form by Robert Southey, 1837.
  • The Three Little Pigs: first appeared in The Nursery Rhymes of England by James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps in c. 1886.
  • Jack the Giant Killer: "The History of Jack and the Giants" was published by J. White of Newcastle in 1711.
  • Jack and the Beanstalk: "The Story of Jack Spriggins and the Enchanted Bean" appeared in 1734; "The History of Jack and the Bean-Stalk" published by Benjamin Tabart in 1807.
  • Humpty Dumpty: English nursery rhyme; character typically portrayed as an anthropomorphic egg, though not explicitly described so; first recorded versions date from the late 18th century.
  • Tom Thumb: the tale of Tom Thumb is the first English fairy tale; the earliest surviving text presumed to be by Richard Johnson was printed in London in 1621.


12. Military heroes

  • Group Captain Geoffrey Leonard Cheshire, Baron Cheshire VC, OM, DSO & Two Bars, DFC 1917–1992.
  • Major General James Wolfe 1727–1759.
  • T. E. Lawrence 1888–1935.
  • Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein 1887–1976.
  • Boudica d. A.D. 60 or 61, queen of the Celtic Iceni tribe who fought against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.
  • Major General Charles George Gordon 1833–1885.
  • Field Marshal Sir Edmund Allenby 1861–1936.
  • General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough 1650–1722.
  • Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral c. 1540–1596.
  • Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 1769–1852.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1599–1658.
  • Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson 1758–1805.
  • Major General Robert Clive 1725–1774.
  • Group Captain Sir Douglas Bader 1910–1982.
  • Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet 1892–1984.


13. Music


  • Leopold Stokowski 1882–1977, born in England.
  • Malcolm Sargent 1895–1967.
  • John Barbirolli 1899–1970.
  • Thomas Beecham 1879–1961.
  • Adrian Boult 1889–1983.

Popular musical entertainers

  • Vera Lynn b. 1917.
  • Gracie Fields 1898–1979.
  • George Formby 1904–1961.
  • Anthony Newley 1931–1999.
  • Jack Hylton 1892–1965.

Hip Hop & Grime

  • Dizzee Rascal b. 1984
  • Stormzy b. 1993
  • Skepta b. 1982
  • J Hus b. 1996
  • Dave b. 1998
  • Wiley b. 1979
  • Giggs b. 1998
  • Tinie Tempah b. 1988

13.1. Music Anthems

  • "Therell Always be an England".
  • "Rose of England".
  • "Land of Hope and Glory".
  • "I Vow to Thee, My Country".
  • "A Song of Patriotic Prejudice" by Flanders and Swann.
  • "Jerusalem" "And did those feet in ancient time.".
  • "Heart of Oak" the official march of the Royal Navy.
  • "Therell Be Bluebirds Over The White Cliffs of Dover".

13.2. Music Classical composers

  • Benjamin Britten 1913–1976.
  • Thomas Tallis c. 1505–1585.
  • Arthur Sullivan 1842–1900; collaborated with librettist W. S. Gilbert.
  • Gustav Holst 1874–1934.
  • George Frideric Handel 1685–1759; naturalised British 1727.
  • William Walton 1902–1983.
  • John Tavener 1944–2013.
  • Henry Purcell 1659–1695.
  • Michael Tippett 1905–1998.
  • Frederick Delius 1862–1934.
  • Malcolm Arnold 1921–2006.
  • Edward Elgar 1857–1934.
  • Ralph Vaughan Williams 1872–1958.
  • William Byrd c. 1539/40 or 1543 – 1623.

13.3. Music Conductors

  • Leopold Stokowski 1882–1977, born in England.
  • Malcolm Sargent 1895–1967.
  • John Barbirolli 1899–1970.
  • Thomas Beecham 1879–1961.
  • Adrian Boult 1889–1983.

13.4. Music Popular musical entertainers

  • Vera Lynn b. 1917.
  • Gracie Fields 1898–1979.
  • George Formby 1904–1961.
  • Anthony Newley 1931–1999.
  • Jack Hylton 1892–1965.

13.5. Music Hip Hop & Grime

  • Dizzee Rascal b. 1984
  • Stormzy b. 1993
  • Skepta b. 1982
  • J Hus b. 1996
  • Dave b. 1998
  • Wiley b. 1979
  • Giggs b. 1998
  • Tinie Tempah b. 1988

14. Periodicals

  • Punch, weekly magazine of humour and satire established by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells in 1841.
  • Viz, adult comic magazine founded in 1979 by Chris Donald.
  • The Eagle, seminal comic published 1950–1969.
  • Country Life, launched by Edward Hudson in 1897.
  • The Times, daily national newspaper based in London; began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register ; became The Times on 1 January 1788.
  • Private Eye, fortnightly satirical and current affairs magazine launched in 1961.
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, scientific journal published by the Royal Society; established in 1665.
  • The Lancet, weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal founded by Thomas Wakley in 1823.
  • Daily Mail, first published by Lord Northcliffe in 1896.
  • Tit-Bits, weekly magazine founded by George Newnes in 1881.
  • The Financial Times, founded by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley in 1888.
  • The Gentlemans Magazine, founded by Edward Cave in 1731.
  • Pall Mall Gazette, evening newspaper founded by George Murray Smith in 1865.

15. Philosophers

  • Thomas Hobbes 1588–1679, wrote Leviathan 1651, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy.
  • John Stuart Mill 1806–1873, influential liberal thinker, wrote on social theory, political theory and political economy.
  • Bertrand Russell 1872–1970, logician, mathematician, and political activist.
  • Jeremy Bentham 1748–1832, founder of modern utilitarianism: that "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong".
  • John Locke 1632–1704, influential Enlightenment thinker, commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

16. Politicians

  • Lord Liverpool 1770–1828, Tory/Conservative.
  • Margaret Thatcher 1925–2013, Conservative.
  • Benjamin Disraeli 1804–1881, Tory/Conservative.
  • William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham 1708–1778, Whig.
  • Winston Churchill 1874–1965, Conservative.
  • William Pitt the Younger 1759–1806, Tory/Conservative.
  • Lord Salisbury 1830–1903, Tory/Conservative.
  • William Ewart Gladstone 1809–1898, Liberal.
  • Robert Walpole 1676–1745), Whig.
  • Tony Benn 1925–2014, Labour.
  • Enoch Powell 1912–1998, Conservative.
  • Clement Attlee 1883–1967, Labour.

17. Radio

  • John Peel, disc jockey, 1939–2004.
  • Kenny Everett, disc jockey, 1944–1995.
  • Tony Blackburn, disc jockey, b. 1943.
  • Hancocks Half Hour, BBC radio comedy later television comedy series, broadcast 1954–1961; the radio series broke with the variety tradition then dominant in radio comedy, highlighting a new genre: the sitcom, or situation comedy.
  • The Goon Show, BBC radio comedy series), broadcast 1951–1960.

18. Religion

  • The Venerable Bede 672/673-735; his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum earned him the title "The Father of English History".
  • Anselm of Canterbury c. 1033 – 1109; Archbishop of Canterbury, 1093–1109.
  • Julian of Norwich c. 1342 – c. 1416, English anchoress and important Christian mystic and theologian.
  • Post-Reformation oaths: English churchmen and others were required to assent to religious changes starting in the 16th century and continuing for more than 250 years.
  • John Wesley 1703–1791 and Charles Wesley 1707–1788, founders of Methodism.
  • Church of England, from 6th to 16th century in full communion with the See of Rome; the English Reformation saw a break from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Thomas More 1478–1535, venerated by Catholics as Saint Thomas More canonised 1535; author of Utopia 1516; his story is told in A Man for All Seasons 1966.
  • Pope Adrian IV Nicholas Breakspear, c.?1100 – 1159; the only English Pope, 1154–1159.
  • Saint Alban died c. 209–305 A.D.; first recorded British Christian martyr.
  • Cardinal Newman 1801–1890, beatified in 2010.
  • Fidei defensor or "Defender of the Faith", a subsidiary title of English and later British monarchs since granted in 1521 by Pope Leo X to King Henry VIII.
  • The Salvation Army, founded by Catherine and William Booth, 1865.
  • Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation.
  • Augustine of Canterbury 6th century, first Archbishop of Canterbury in 597 A.D.
  • Archbishop of Canterbury, senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England.
  • Thomas Becket c. 1120–1170, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170; venerated as saint and martyr by both Catholic Church and Anglican Communion; engaged in conflict with Henry II over rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral; canonised soon after by Pope Alexander III.

19. Royalty

  • Richard the Lionheart 1157–1199.
  • Queen Elizabeth I 1533–1603.
  • Alfred the Great 848–899 A.D.
  • King Richard III 1452–1485.
  • King Henry VIII 1491–1547.
  • King Henry V 1386–1422.

20. Scientists

  • Edward Jenner 1749–1823, said to have "saved more lives than were lost in all the wars of mankind since the beginning of recorded history."
  • Michael Faraday 1791–1867, discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and electrolysis.
  • Robert Hooke 1635–1703, natural philosopher and polymath of multiple innovations.
  • Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1727, widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
  • Francis Galton 1822–1911, devised a method for classifying fingerprints that advanced forensic science; initiated scientific meteorology; pioneered eugenics, coining the phrase "nature versus nurture".
  • Francis Crick 1916–2004, co-discoverer with James Watson of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953.
  • John Dalton 1766–1844, best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness.
  • Charles Darwin 1809–1882, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

21. Sport

  • Cricket; in recent times, the 2005 Ashes series; W. G. Grace 1848–1915, amateur cricketer, was important in the development of the sport.
  • Englands Premier League of mens association football clubs is the most-watched football league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people; after narrowly avoiding relegation the previous season, Leicester City F.C. won the league for the first time in their 132-year history in the 2015–16 season, becoming the sixth club to win the Premier League.
  • Wimbledon tennis champions include: Fred Perry 1909–1995, and Virginia Wade b. 1945.
  • 2012 Summer Olympics, commonly known as London 2012.
  • Notable Darts players include: Eric Bristow b. 1957, Keith Deller b. 1959, Maureen Flowers b. 1945, Bobby George b. 1945, John Lowe b. 1945, and Phil Taylor b. 1960.
  • Footballs FA Cup: first played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world.
  • The 1966 FIFA World Cup Final: England 4 – West Germany 2; the most watched television event ever in the United Kingdom; Kenneth Wolstenholmes BBC TV match commentary drew to a close memorably with the line "They think its all over".
  • Rugby Football; in recent times, Jonny Wilkinsons b. 1979 dropped goal in the final minute of the 2003 Rugby World Cup Final.
  • Cyclist Chris Froome b. 1985, four times winner of the Tour de France.
  • Henry Cooper 1934–2011, heavyweight boxer who held the British, Commonwealth, and European heavyweight titles several times throughout his career; knocked down Muhammad Ali then Cassius Clay in 1963.
  • Roger Bannister 1929–2018, ran the first sub-four-minute mile on 6 May 1954 at Iffley Road track in Oxford.
  • Notable Formula One drivers include: Mike Hawthorn 1929–1959, Graham Hill 1929–1975, James Hunt 1947–1993, Stirling Moss b. 1929, and John Surtees 1934–2017.
  • Bobby Moore 1941–1993, affectionately remembered captain of the England team that won the 1966 World Cup.
  • Notable Snooker players include: Steve Davis b. 1957, Ronnie OSullivan b. 1975, and Jimmy White b. 1962.


22. Television


  • Gerry Anderson 1929–2012 ITV productions including: Fireball XL5 1962–5; Stingray 1964–5; Thunderbirds 1965–6; Captain Scarlet 1967–8; and Joe 90 1968–9.
  • Smallfilms, the partnership of Oliver Postgate 1925–2008 and Peter Firmin b. 1928, makers of: Noggin the Nog BBC, 1959–65; The Clangers BBC, 1969–74; and Bagpuss BBC, 1974.


  • Fawlty Towers BBC, 1975–1979
  • The Benny Hill Show BBC/ITV, 1955–1991.
  • On the Buses ITV, 1969–73.
  • Monty Pythons Flying Circus BBC, 1969–1974


  • Doctor Who 1963-1989, 2005–Present.
  • Coronation Street ITV, 1960–present.
  • Tales of the Unexpected ITV, 1979–88.
  • Cathy Come Home and The Wednesday Play 1964–1970.


  • Test Card F BBC, 1967–99.
  • Match of the Day BBC, 1964–present.

23.1. Transport Cars

  • The Ford Cortina, built by Ford of Britain at Brentwood, Essex in various forms from 1962 to 1982.
  • Aston Martin, a manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers; associated since the 1960s with the fictional character James Bond following the use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger.
  • Rolls-Royce Limited and Rolls-Royce Motors, renowned car-manufacturers 1906–1998; exemplified by the Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow; and the associated Bentley 1919–1998; bought by Rolls-Royce in 1931.
  • The Jaguar E-Type, manufactured by Jaguar Cars between 1961 and 1975.
  • Morris Minor 1948–1971, recognised as typifying "Englishness".
  • The Mini, made by the British Motor Corporation and its successors 1959–2000.
  • Land Rover, a car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles; the Land Rover name was originally used, from 1948, by the Rover Company.

23.2. Transport Water

  • The Golden Hind: an English galleon best known for Sir Francis Drakes circumnavigation of the globe between 1577 and 1580; the ship does not survive, but a replica – the Golden Hinde 1973 – has been berthed at St Mary Overie Dock on Cathedral Street, in Bankside, Southwark since 1996.
  • Cutty Sark 1869: a tea clipper built by 19th century ship-owning firm John Willis & Sons of London; in dry dock at Greenwich, London since 1954.
  • The Mary Rose: King Henry VIIIs warship sank on 19 July 1545 in the Solent, the straits north of the Isle of Wight; the wreck was rediscovered in 1971.
  • Narrowboats: the original working boats built in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries for carrying goods on Englands narrow canals.
  • The Mayflower: the ship that transported the first English Separatists, known today as the Pilgrims, from Plymouth to the New World in 1620.

23.3. Transport Public transport

  • The London Underground or the Tube ; began operating in 1863.
  • The man on the Clapham omnibus became the expression used in English courts to symbolise a hypothetical ordinary and reasonable person.
  • AEC Routemaster bus red London double-decker bus, entered service 1956.
  • Blackpool tramway, last surviving first-generation tramway in the United Kingdom.
  • Hackney carriage

24. Writers

  • Victorian novelists, most notably: Charles Dickens 1812–1870.
  • Late 19th and early 20th century writers, notably: Thomas Hardy 1840–1928, Rudyard Kipling 1865–1936, and E. M. Forster 1879–1970.
  • 20th century novelists, including: George Orwell 1903–1950, Evelyn Waugh 1903–1966, Virginia Woolf 1882–1941, and Graham Greene 1904–1991.
  • Early modern dramatists, most notably: William Shakespeare 1564–1616.
  • Augustan writers, notably: Alexander Pope 1688–1744, and Dr Johnson 1709–1784.
  • Regency and Victorian female novelists, notably: Jane Austen 1775–1817, Charlotte Bronte 1816–1855, Emily Bronte 1818–1848, and George Eliot 1819–1880.
  • Victorian poets, notably: Tennyson 1809–1892, and Browning 1812–1889.
  • Romantic poets, notably: Wordsworth 1770–1850, Coleridge 1772–1834, Byron 1788–1824, Shelley 1792–1822, and Keats 1795–1821.
  • 20th century poets, including: Betjeman 1906–1984, Auden 1907–1973, and Larkin 1922–1985.
  • Middle English writers, notably: Geoffrey Chaucer 1343–1400, and William Langland c. 1332 – c. 1386.
  • Early modern poets, notably: John Donne 1572–1631, and John Milton 1608–1674.

25. Miscellaneous

  • English weather.
  • The Red telephone box, dating from 1924.
  • Stiff upper lip, a display of fortitude in the face of adversity, or an exercise of self-restraint in the expression of emotion; exemplified in Rudyard Kiplings poem "If - ".
  • The English garden, a style of "landscape" garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century.
  • Hedges.
  • Punch and Judy, traditional, popular puppet show, associated with seaside culture.
  • The neighbourhood "bobby" on the beat, dating from the 19th century.
  • The seaside pleasure pier, first built in England in the early 19th century.
  • The White Cliffs of Dover; of symbolic significance because they face Continental Europe across the narrowest part of the English Channel, where invasions have historically threatened, and against which the cliffs form a symbolic guard; because crossing at Dover was the primary route to the continent before the advent of air travel, the white line of cliffs also formed the first or last sight of England for travellers.
  • The Scout movement, created in 1907 by Lord Baden-Powell.
  • Oxbridge, a portmanteau word blending Oxford University and Cambridge University, used to refer to the two collectively in contrast to other universities.
  • Coldstream Guards and Trooping the Colour.
  • Queuing, the practice once archetypally English of waiting in line for ones turn to be attended to or to proceed.
  • The London Tube Map, designed originally in 1931 by Harry Beck 1902–1974.
  • Bayeux Tapestry, final and best known work of Anglo-Saxon art, made in England in the 1070s but held in a French museum.
  • King Arthur, central figure in the legends making up the so-called Matter of Britain.
  • Red pillar boxes in use since 1852.
  • Ordnance Survey maps; work commenced in 1791.
  • Pantomime, a type of musical comedy stage production for family entertainment, developed in England by "father of English pantomime" John Rich 1692–1761.
  • Bank of England, established 1694.
  • Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red by Paul Cummins, with setting by Tom Piper; an installation at the Tower of London July–November 2014 commemorating the centenary of the outbreak of World War I.
  • The public house, or Pub. The great diarist Samuel Pepys 1603–1733 described the pub as the heart of England.
  • English local government, originating from the municipal reform of the 19th century.
  • English sense of humour.
  • Music hall, a theatrical entertainment popular from the early Victorian era until 1960; popularly revived on television by the BBCs The Good Old Days.
  • The Parish church, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches.
  • The Sutton Hoo helmet, excavated in 1939 from a c. 7th century ship-burial and prompting comparisons with the world described in the heroic Old English poem Beowulf.
  • English eccentricity, some historical examples of which are documented in John Timbs English Eccentrics and Eccentricities 1866.
  • Fox hunting, of 16th century origin; and the 2005 ban Hunting Act 2004.
  • Bettys Tea Room in Harrogate, traditional tea rooms dating from 1919.
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